Attitudes Based On Low Consumer Effort

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  • 1. Chapter 7 Attitudes Based on Low Consumer Effort
  • 2. Low Efforts
    • When consumers are either unwilling or unable to exert a lot of effort or devote a lot of emotional resources to processing the central idea behind a marketing communication.
      • Consumer are unlikely to:
        • Think about what the product means to them
        • Relate empathetically to the characters in the ad
        • Generate arguments against or in support of the brand message
  • 3. Low Efforts
    • Consumers tend to have Low MAO (motivation, ability, and opportunity) to process ads, consumer are passive recipients of the message
  • 4. How do we reach the Low MAO?
    • Use of peripheral routs to persuasion:
      • Message focuses on a different rout rather than the key message arguments
      • Use of Peripheral Cues and Processing:
  • 5. Low Effort/MAO cont.
    • Just as marketers attempt use affective and cognitive routs when processing is high, they also use each (or both) when effort processing is low
  • 6. Cognitive Bases of Attitudes When Effort is Low
    • Low processing: Consumers base beliefs on simple inferences
      • Placement near the prototype
      • Brand name, symbols (chapter 5)
    • Heuristics (simple rules of thumb)
      • A well know brand makes it, it must be good
        • P&G
      • Frequency Heuristic: Belief based on a number of supporting arguments
        • Higher price means higher quality
        • Michael Jordan endorses it, therefore it must be good
      • Truth Effect: Consumer have stronger beliefs the more they hear something (this rings a bell so it must be true)
        • Davidson has a great basketball team
        • Tiffany’s has better jewelry
  • 7.
    • Source: Communication source plays an important role in influencing consumer beliefs when MOA is low.
      • Credible sources serve as peripheral cues for making a simple judgment
        • Source expertise
        • Source doesn’t indorse many product
    How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
  • 8. How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
    • Message:
      • Category and Schema Consistent Information: Name, price, color or message infers a certain meaning:
        • Healthy Choice Soups must be …healthy
      • Many Message Argument: Multiple messages to form a belief: Newman’s own multiple messages = Great Product/Company
        • Good for you
        • Organic
        • Profits donated to charity
      • Simple Message: KISS, low MOA may process simple message better: “Nothing outlast the Energizer”
      • Involving Message: Use of tools such as self referencing or mystery ads to increase consumer involvement
  • 9.
    • Context of Message Delivery:
      • “ Repetition is the key to learning”
            • – Dr. Richard B. Bennett III
      • Although source and message factors can influence attitude, the context in which the message is delivered can affect the strength of consumers’ beliefs and the prominence or salience of said beliefs
      • Constant repartition leads to
        • Effortless or incidental learning
        • Enhanced brand awareness/favorability
        • More believable claims (truth effect)
      • Messages delivered in the same context of their medium (humorous ad during comedy show or sophisticated fashion ad in a sophisticated fashion magazine) elicited stronger feelings
    How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
  • 10.
    • Context of Message Delivery:
      • “Repetition is the key to learning”
            • –Dr. Richard B. Bennett III
    How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
  • 11.
    • Context of Message Delivery:
      • “Repetition is the key to learning”
            • –Dr. Richard B. Bennett III
    How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
  • 12.
    • Context of Message Delivery:
      • “Repetition is the key to learning”
    How Cognitive Attitudes are Formed: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
  • 13. Affective (Emotional) Bases of Attitudes
    • Mere Exposure Effect: We tend to prefer familiar things to unfamiliar ones
      • Many of the top 30 brands in the 1930s are still among the top 30
    • Classical Conditioning:
      • Pavlov’s dogs
  • 14. Affective (Emotional) Bases of Attitudes
    • Attitude Toward the Ad:
      • Sometimes consumers like an ad so much they transfer their positive feeling for the ad to the brand
      • Dual-Mediation Hypothesis: Explains how attitudes towards an ad (A ad ) can influence responses (cognitive and affective) that build attitudes toward the brand and intent to purchase
    • Mood: Consumer may like a product or brand better when they are put in a good mood by the advertising or the program/vehicle that delivers the ad.
      • Personal mood influence on consumer reaction
      • Music and color
  • 15. How Affective Attitudes Are Influenced: Source, Message, and the Context of Message Delivery
    • Source
      • Attractive Source: Models, Spokesperson, Celebrities
        • Research supports the theory that beauty sells
          • Consumer are most strongly attracted to models of the opposite sex
          • Consumer rate ads with more attractive models as more appealing, more eye catching, impressive, interesting, believable
      • Likable Source: Create a positive mood
        • More average looking
        • May be a celebrity
      • Celebrity Source: Gain attention
        • May leverage likability and attractiveness
        • Leverage Match Up Hypothesis (source is related to the offering)
        • May be a person, animal, character, or cartoon
        • Involve risk
  • 16. How Affective Attitudes Are Influenced
    • Message
      • Music
      • Sex
      • Humor
      • Pleasant Pictures
      • Emotional Context
    • Message Context