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A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
A Introduction To Common Kads
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A Introduction To Common Kads

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  • 1. A introduction to CommonKADS: structured knowledge engineering Guus Schreiber www.commonkads.uva.nl
  • 2. Activities in knowledge-system development Business context modelling Communication modelling Knowledge modelling System design
  • 3. Why context modeling? <ul><li>Often difficult to identify profitable use of (knowledge) technology </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory is different from the &apos;&apos;real&apos;&apos; world </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability to users very important </li></ul><ul><li>Fielding into ongoing process not self evident </li></ul><ul><li>Often not clear what additional measures to take </li></ul>
  • 4. How to analyze a knowledge-intensive organization ? <ul><li>describe organization aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opportunity/problems portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business context, goals, strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal organization: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people (staff: functional roles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>power and culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resources (knowledge, support systems, equipment,…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>do this for both current and future organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comparison, and first decisions on where to go </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Worksheets Organization Model
  • 6. Process “Housing”
  • 7. Example OM-3 for “Housing” 5 Yes Assignment &amp; urgency rules Residence Assignment Assigner 4. Residence assignment 5 Yes Assessment criteria Residence assignment Assigner 3. Application assessment 2 No - Residence assignment Data typist / automated telephone 2. Data entry applications 3 No - Public service Magazine editor 1. Magazine production Signifi- cance KI? Knowledge asset(s) Where Performed by Task
  • 8. Knowledge modelling <ul><li>Specific type of conceptual modelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only gradual differences with “general” conceptual modelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge modelling from scratch is time-consuming and difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge reuse is important theme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterns exist for types of problem-solving tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base on typology of problem-solving tasks </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Analytic versus synthetic tasks <ul><li>analytic tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system pre-exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is typically not completely &amp;quot;known&amp;quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>input: some data about the system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>output: some characterization of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>synthetic tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system does not yet exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>input: requirements about system to be constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>output: constructed system description </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Task hierarchy
  • 11. Knowledge categories <ul><li>Task knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goal-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relevant domain knowledge and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>static </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inference knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic reasoning steps that can be made in the domain knowledge and are applied by tasks </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Knowledge model overview
  • 13. Domain knowledge <ul><li>domain schema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schematic description of knowledge and information types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comparable to data model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defined through domain constructs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>knowledge base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of knowledge instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comparable to database content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but; static nature </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Constructs for domain schema <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. object class (without operations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primitive value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduces expressions =&gt; no SE equivalent </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Example rule type
  • 16. Inference <ul><li>fully described through a declarative specification of properties of its I/O </li></ul><ul><li>internal process of the inference is a black box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not of interest for knowledge modeling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I/O described using “role names” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>functional names, not part of the domain knowledge schema / data model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>guideline to stop decomposition: explanation </li></ul>
  • 17. Example inference: cover
  • 18. Inference structure
  • 19. Task knowledge <ul><li>describes goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assess a mortgage application in order to minimize the risk of losing money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find the cause of a malfunction of a photocopier in order to restore service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design an elevator for a new building. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>describes strategies (methods, PSMs) that can be employed for realizing goals. </li></ul><ul><li>typically described in a hierarchical fashion: </li></ul>
  • 20. UML activity diagram for method control
  • 21. Assessment <ul><li>find decision category for a case based on domain-specific norms. </li></ul><ul><li>typical domains: financial applications (loan application), community service </li></ul><ul><li>terminology: case, decision, norms </li></ul><ul><li>some similarities with monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>differences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>timing: assessment is more static </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different output: decision versus discrepancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Example assessment task: mortgage assessment
  • 23. Mortgage domain information
  • 24. Assessment: abstract &amp; match method <ul><li>Abstract the case data </li></ul><ul><li>Specify the norms applicable to the case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “rent-fits-income”, “correct-household-size” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select a single norm </li></ul><ul><li>Compute a truth value for the norm with respect to the case </li></ul><ul><li>See whether this leads to a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat norm selection and evaluation until a decision is reached </li></ul>
  • 25. Mortgage domain knowledge
  • 26. Template (pattern) for assessment task case abstracted case norms norm value decision abstract select match specify evaluate norm
  • 27. Assessment control
  • 28. Claim handling for unemployment benefits
  • 29. Normen en beslisregels voor WW beoordeling <ul><li>Normen: </li></ul><ul><li>Verzekerd </li></ul><ul><li>Werkloos </li></ul><ul><li>Wekeneis </li></ul><ul><li>Jareneis </li></ul><ul><li>Beslisregels </li></ul><ul><li>ALS niet verzekerd of niet werkloos of niet voldoet aan wekeneis DAN geen WW </li></ul><ul><li>ALS wel wekeneis en niet jareneis DAN korte basisuitkering </li></ul><ul><li>ALS wel jareneis DAN loongerelateerde uitkering </li></ul>
  • 30. In applications: typical task combinations <ul><li>monitoring + diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>monitoring + assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>diagnosis + planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>classification + planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military applications </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Example: apple-pest management
  • 32. Summary <ul><li>Knowledge engineering is a specialized form of software engineering </li></ul><ul><li>CommonKADS: model-based approach to knowledge engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of task-specific knowledge models is important theme </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge model often outlives application </li></ul>

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