Chapter 1 Why Study Statistics? Statistics for  Business and Economics   6 th  Edition
Chapter Goals <ul><li>After completing this chapter, you should be able to:   </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how decisions are ...
Dealing with Uncertainty <ul><li>Everyday decisions are based on incomplete information </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li><...
Dealing with Uncertainty <ul><li>Because of uncertainty, the statements should be modified: </li></ul><ul><li>The price of...
Key Definitions <ul><li>A  population  is the collection of all items of interest or under investigation </li></ul><ul><ul...
Population vs. Sample a  b  c d  ef  gh i  jk l  m  n o  p q  rs  t  u v  w x  y  z Population Sample b  c  g i  n o  r  u...
Examples of Populations <ul><li>Names of all registered voters in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Incomes of all famil...
Random Sampling <ul><li>Simple random sampling  is a procedure in which </li></ul><ul><li>each member of the population is...
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics <ul><li>Two branches of statistics: </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li><...
Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present data </li></...
Inferential Statistics <ul><li>Estimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Estimate the population mean weight using the sample...
The Decision Making Process Begin Here: Identify the Problem Data Information Knowledge Decision Descriptive Statistics, P...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Reviewed incomplete information in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced key definitions: <...
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Chap01

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Chap01

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Why Study Statistics? Statistics for Business and Economics 6 th Edition
  2. 2. Chapter Goals <ul><li>After completing this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how decisions are often based on incomplete information </li></ul><ul><li>Explain key definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Population vs. Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Parameter vs. Statistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between Descriptive and Inferential statistics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dealing with Uncertainty <ul><li>Everyday decisions are based on incomplete information </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>The price of IBM stock will be higher in six months than it is now. </li></ul><ul><li>If the federal budget deficit is as high as predicted, interest rates will remain high for the rest of the year. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Dealing with Uncertainty <ul><li>Because of uncertainty, the statements should be modified: </li></ul><ul><li>The price of IBM stock is likely to be higher in six months than it is now. </li></ul><ul><li>If the federal budget deficit is as high as predicted, it is probable that interest rates will remain high for the rest of the year. </li></ul>(continued)
  5. 5. Key Definitions <ul><li>A population is the collection of all items of interest or under investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N represents the population size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A sample is an observed subset of the population </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>n represents the sample size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A parameter is a specific characteristic of a population </li></ul><ul><li>A statistic is a specific characteristic of a sample </li></ul>
  6. 6. Population vs. Sample a b c d ef gh i jk l m n o p q rs t u v w x y z Population Sample b c g i n o r u y Values calculated using population data are called parameters Values computed from sample data are called statistics
  7. 7. Examples of Populations <ul><li>Names of all registered voters in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Incomes of all families living in Daytona Beach </li></ul><ul><li>Annual returns of all stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Grade point averages of all the students in your university </li></ul>
  8. 8. Random Sampling <ul><li>Simple random sampling is a procedure in which </li></ul><ul><li>each member of the population is chosen strictly by chance, </li></ul><ul><li>each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen, </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>every possible sample of n objects is equally likely to be chosen </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting sample is called a random sample </li></ul>
  9. 9. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics <ul><li>Two branches of statistics: </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting, summarizing, and processing data to transform data into information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferential statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide the bases for predictions, forecasts, and estimates that are used to transform information into knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Descriptive Statistics <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Tables and graphs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarize data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Sample mean = </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Inferential Statistics <ul><li>Estimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Test the claim that the population mean weight is 120 pounds </li></ul></ul>Inference is the process of drawing conclusions or making decisions about a population based on sample results
  12. 12. The Decision Making Process Begin Here: Identify the Problem Data Information Knowledge Decision Descriptive Statistics, Probability, Computers Experience, Theory, Literature, Inferential Statistics, Computers
  13. 13. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Reviewed incomplete information in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced key definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population vs. Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parameter vs. Statistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive vs. Inferential statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Described random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Examined the decision making process </li></ul>

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