CULT3120 Presentation - Online Group A


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CULT3120 Presentation - Online Group A

  2. 2. BY: GUIDA DICKSON GROUP A CULT3120 Popular Music
  3. 3. The Meaning of Popular Music <ul><li>To understand popular music, Andy Bennet proposes the following concept: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An analysis of the musical text, and that the meaning in music is encoded in melodies and rhythmic patterns of given songs/musical passages’ (Bennet 182). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Cultural theorists, view the meaning of music as a product of its reception and appropriation by the audience. It can also be argued that particular socio-cultural environments many also play a part in determining how individuals receive music and inscribe meaning in given musical texts’. (Bennett 182). ‘ Relationship between music, individual and locality’ (Bennet 183). </li></ul><ul><li>The three keys points Bennet highlights, aims to provide an understanding to the interconnection of the three. Bennet highlights the work of other theorist in how they have connected music to the individual in locality scenes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennet believes that peoples’ environments influence their interaction with music. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Meaning of Popular Music according to Simon Frith <ul><li>Frith’s theory of the top-down analyses of musical texts, highlights the political economy of the music industry or the ‘authenticity’ of particular popular music artists, which may explain how popular music ‘works’ at a cultural level, but equally important in this respect is an engagement with the aesthetic practices and value judgements of music audiences themselves (Bennet 425). </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Meaning of Popular Music according to Tia DeNora <ul><li>Tia DeNora’ study of popular music, saw her work illustrates the way in which: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Music [acts as] a device or resource to which people turn in order to regulate themselves as aesthetic agents, as feeling, thinking and acting beings in their day-to-day lives’ (Bennet 426). </li></ul><ul><li>And how ‘ particular aspects of music, as governed by genre, tone, lyrics and so on, may provide particular templates through which individuals are able to explore and/or express emotions, musical meaning and significance’ (Bennet 426). </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Meaning of Popular Music according to George Lewis <ul><li>George Lewis’ view on what makes music popular has to do with a person ‘growing up in a particular place, reading a particular kind of literature and so on, it can act on the individual to suggest that a specific genre of music is more aesthetically fulfilling than other genres, because of its resonance with other acquired sensibilities’ (Bennet 428). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cultural Influence <ul><li>Cultural influences play a key role in popular music. The choices one makes and the environment in which one is immersed, will predict a notable interest in particular types of genres. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennet (421, 425) quotes; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Everyday life is often interpreted as an arena for repression and social determinism’ and; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ the act of musical interpretation and the consequent meaning of music is inseparable from the consumption of texts by audiences’. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emotionally Connected <ul><li>Music has an ability to feel intensely and emotionally linked to the private self, and music is often the basis for collective public experiences, whether in live performance, or the privacy of your own home. Our excitement or sadness can be intensified through the sense that such emotions in response to a particular piece of music are shared, or even potentially shared. This feeling can be especially strong at a live performance (Hesmondlalgh 329). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Class & Popular Music <ul><li>‘ Profane Culture’ (Willis 1978) looks at the relationship between class, culture and musical taste using the conceptual framework of homology. The ethnographic sections of Willis’s study centre around the contrasting musical tastes of two class-defined youth cultural groups, the ‘bikers’ and the ‘hippies’. The transcripts included in the text illustrate a preference among the bikers for musically straightforward 1950s rock and roll songs, while the hippies’ musical preference is shown to be for the more musically complex, album-orientated progressive rock groups of the early 1970s. According to Willis, the contrasting musical tastes of the bikers and hippies directly relate to their differing class backgrounds . For the bikers, the simplicity of rock and roll clearly resonates and develops the particular interests and qualities of [their] life-style [possessing] an integrity of form and atmosphere as well as an immediate, informal confidence. By contrast, the more educated, middle-class hippies demand music that challenges the listener and offers a more diverse listening experience (Bennet 422). </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who participate more in highbrow lifestyles tend to be women, more educated, older, in a white collar occupation, churchgoers, more affluent, and urban area residents. Those who participate in rural cultural indictors are almost their mirror image – whites, men, less educated, older, non-white collar workers, less affluent and rural area residents (Katz-Gerro 641). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Popular Music & Festivals <ul><li>Festival spaces offer participants and performers the chance to experience and experiment with different elements of lifestyle and music. It has been argued previously that festivals have a pilgrimage-like nature that has the potential to transform its participants, although problems and tensions can occur within the festival scene when it becomes associated with commercialisation. A way for festival organizers to lessen the impact of commercialisation on their festival is to participate in what is known as boundary work. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary work refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who can attend </li></ul><ul><li>What type of music to include </li></ul><ul><li>What bands to include </li></ul>
  11. 11. Popular Music & Festivals <ul><li>‘ Festivals have the ability to create, mobilise and rejuvenate both performers and audiences. However, festivals can also facilitate changes that may be viewed as negative by scene members, such as their contribution to the commercialisation of popular music’ (Cummings 676). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ When subcultural styles and sounds are commercialised, they do reach a wider audience and expand their presence in mainstream society. However they lose the stamp of authenticity conferred by their innovators, and to many people it seems that they cease to be cool, different and rebellious’ (Moore 235). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Popular Music..... Summing up <ul><li>Popular music’s definition is hard to define. It is made up of multiple layers, which consists of cultural influence, emotional connectedness and class. Other factors proposed that contribute to popular music has to do with aesthetics, age and possibly gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular music is a fluid notion, as it changes all the time. What is considered popular to one person, may not be considered the same to another person. </li></ul>
  13. 13. BY: CAITLIN DIXON GROUP A CULT3120 Why Popular Music? Refuting ‘High’ Culture
  14. 14. ‘ High’ and ‘Low’? <ul><li>There is often a distinction drawn between ‘high’ culture activities and ‘low’ culture activities – yet what do these terms mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Judith Blau (quoted in Waterman 56-57) defines them as: </li></ul><ul><li>High Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Art museums, galleries, opera, theatre, orchestras, ballet, dance companies </li></ul><ul><li>Differs little amongst regions </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by and for a defined ‘elite’ </li></ul><ul><li>Low Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Popular music concerts, cinemas, commercial bands, dance halls, country music festivals, craft fairs </li></ul><ul><li>Popular/mass reception </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Culture with a broad appeal’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes represented as the ‘consciousness industry’: a form of social control by an economic elite </li></ul>
  15. 15. Popular v. High Culture <ul><li>The ‘popular’ has long been recognised as a legitimate and significant area of study in fields such as Cultural Studies (Bennett 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>This is not simply kowtowing to ‘the masses’; rather, popular media such as music permeates everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The idea of culture as a purely aesthetic realm, the output of an intellectual or artistic elite, separate from society and economy is abandoned to be replaced by culture defined as a way of life.” (Waterman 55) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Popular music’s ever growing status as a multi-media, global industry – and the new technologies that have facilitated this – has pushed it increasingly into the everyday soundscape.” (Bennett 421) </li></ul><ul><li>Why should popular music, therefore, be neglected? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Deconstructing High / Low Brow <ul><li>Both ‘elite’ and ‘popular’ festivals have elements of social cohesion, neutralizing social conflict, and active interpretation of culture (Waterman 60) </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways, high and low culture festivals serve similar functions . </li></ul><ul><li>Why, then, should ‘high’ culture be preferred over ‘low’? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deconstructing High / Low Brow <ul><li>It can be simplistic to equate aesthetic taste with social class: taste is not a product of social structures, but a “reflexively derived form of expression”. (Bennett 428) </li></ul><ul><li>If aesthetic taste is individual, what purpose does distinction between ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this distinction exist, except to produce mythical ideas of ‘class’? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Arguments for a Popular Music Festival <ul><li>There is the danger for analysts of popular culture and music to ‘speak for the masses’ (Frow 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Hebdige (1988) argues that popular culture should not be proclaimed ‘as good as’ high art; rather, it should be recognised for its difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s not speak for – but engage </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s not be exclusive – but inclusive </li></ul>
  19. 19. Arguments for a Popular Music Festival <ul><li>“ Support for the arts has conventionally been part of the very process whereby social elites define themselves as a dominant class and establish social distance between themselves and the populace, drawing on the distinction between popular and high culture to bolster class differences… One of the crucial roles of festivals therefore is the legitimation of an elite by shaping norms of public discourse. ” (Waterman 57) </li></ul><ul><li>We should not continue to validate this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular music is equally important: </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the arts should reflect this. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Arguments for a Popular Music Festival <ul><li>Waterman (60) argues that local ‘Popular’ or ‘low-brow’ festivals, absent the “pretensions of catering to elites”, are often under-rated in terms of their cultural value. </li></ul><ul><li>For Waterman, this suggests “that festivals mean different things to different people; not everything considered a festival by some would be recognized as such by others”. </li></ul><ul><li>Our festival may not target ‘high culture’ </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>We would ask you to ‘rate’ the commonly under-rated </li></ul><ul><li>and recognise the value of popular music </li></ul>
  21. 21. BY: FLETCHER CHARLTON GROUP A CULT3120 The Value of Music in Society “Without music, Life would be a mistake” Friedrich Nietzsche
  22. 22. In 1964, Alan P Merriam put forward ten social functions that music can serve <ul><li>Aesthetic enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical response </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional expression </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic representation </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of conformity to norms </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of social institutions and religious rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to the continuity and stability of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to the integration of society </li></ul>“ There is probably no other human cultural activity which is so all pervasive and which reaches into shapes, and often controls so much human behaviour” (Merriam,1964:217)
  23. 23. <ul><li>More recently, David Hargreaves and Adrian North have suggested that the social functions of Music are exercised in three main ways: Management of self-identity, interpersonal relationship and mood. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Listeners join musical subcultures as means of defining themselves” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Research in adolescence indicate that pop music preferences form the basis of social group formation” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is clear evidence that music serves as a means of mood management in everyday life” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Hargreaves, North, 1999:79-80) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>These interpretations however, represent only two of an exorbitant number of valid interpretations analysing the role of music within society. </li></ul><ul><li>It is therefore clear that music plays a wide range of functions within society, and that these functions vary from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The function a music serves is not an attribute of that music, but is dependent on both the music itself and the user” </li></ul><ul><li>Allan F. Moore, Music Culture and Society: On the Pop-Classical Split, 2000 </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Music satisfies the needs of mankind to communicate thoughts and feelings in ways that words and pictures are not able to. It represents both a powerful form of expression and a valuable means of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Music expresses that which cannot be put into words and that which cannot remain silent” Victor Hugo </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Music can also alter or enhance a person’s mood, “[providing] a model of where one is, is going, or where one ‘ought’ to be emotionally” (Denora,2000:158) </li></ul><ul><li>This effect is often harnessed for positive social benefits. Examples include labour songs, where rhythm and melody are used to motivate workers, and music therapy whereby “music is employed as a template for bio-feedback, where one may, in and through identification with particular musical properties, alter physiological and emotional states and bodily awareness” (Denora,2000:161 </li></ul><ul><li>Tia Denora, Music in Everyday Life, 2000 </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Recent research has proven that Music also acts a mechanism for multicultural harmony, allowing different cultures to bond through the similarities they share in music. This is of particular importance with regard to Australia’s multicultural community. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Music is a powerful prosocial resource that merges universal properties and multicultural characteristics&quot; (Boer, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>D.Boer - Social Functions of Music Listening for Young People Across Cultures, 2009 </li></ul>
  28. 28. BY: KELLY EATHER GROUP A CULT3120 The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals
  29. 29. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>In addition to the social and cultural value of music, we have also examined the social and cultural value of our specific event – the festival. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ All events can be seen to have a direct social and cultural impact on their participants and this impact can vary from a pure entertainment or aesthetic experience to increased civic pride, community cohesion and cultural expansion’ (Allen et al. 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Musical events and festivals can provide much more than just entertainment – they can unite a community, encourage musical growth and development and provide significant social and cultural activities that maximise the overall potential of a town. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>Throughout history, the ‘festival’ has been established as an event that supports popular music as a social and cultural activity. Festivals have been proven to contribute to ‘social inclusivity, place promotion, identity building and inter-cultural communication’ (Ali-Knight & Chambers 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>There aren’t many other events that can create such a holistic societal or cultural impact on a community, without a pure focus on economic and political motives. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>David Throsby (2002) has done a lot of research into the global and local potential of music and has found that music, in both its structure and content, constitutes one of the world’s most important cultural industries. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Music stands as one of the most significant of the creative industries, whether assessed in economic or cultural terms’ (Throsby 2002). </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>‘ Festivals and events offer an integrate approach to creating the vibrant communities to which people aspire’ (Yeoman et al. 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>This event will promote a sense of community pride, musical development and will have a positive social and cultural impact that will continue to remain even when the festival is over. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A pop festival…can also be an occasion on which people respond to musical ideas and achieve some degree of transcendence’ (Frith 2004). </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>Not only will the social and cultural aspects of the festival create a significant annual popular music activity for the community, but it will also strengthen the cultural aesthetics and social policies of Newcastle as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The publicity that festivals and events can generate for a community can have not only a cumulative impact on the destination but also feed into the image and identity of the community and assist with creating an appealing authenticity’ (Yeoman et al. 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Festivals and events can provide a key cultural product that can serve as a pull factor to the destination…Festivals and events are also part of the cultural process and policy of the destination’ (Ali-Knight & Chambers 2006). </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals <ul><li>Like the Sydney Festival, this festival has the potential to position Newcastle as providing one of the most cultural musical events in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sydney Festival attracts approximately one million people a year (Sydney Festival 2010). Similar numbers would see Newcastle develop its social and cultural music aesthetics beyond anything we have ever seen. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Festivals can shape the image of the host community and its physical location in the mind of potential visitors’ (Yeoman et al. 2004) </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Social & Cultural Value of Festivals ‘ Positive legacies of festivals and evens in destinations include the establishment or the strengthening of traditions and values held by residents. Much is written on the growth in pride and spirit when communities host successful events… This combined with the adoption of new social patterns and exposure to new cultural forms can stimulate an increase in volunteerism, community involvement and intercultural interaction and cooperation’ (Yeoman et al. 2004).
  36. 36. Justification of the event Laura Dawson Group A- online tutorial CULT3120
  37. 37. Preliminary ideas- talent show performance Pro Con <ul><li>Supporting local musical talent </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to springboard a Newcastle 'musical success story' </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an opportunity for Novocastrian musical expression </li></ul><ul><li>Generate wider media interest in music in the area (media interest in competition) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for a wide variety of music </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalising on commercial 'talent search' franchises e.g. Idol - capturing a younger audience </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility for audience participation e.g. voting to determine winner/finalists/shortlist </li></ul><ul><li>Audience could be limited: may only attract a specific type of audience </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to be stigmatised by commercial talent searches e.g. Idol </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty of finding and attracting 'talent' to the competition </li></ul><ul><li>Limited scope - impact is limited to a competition over a few nights at most, and audience participation seems limited to the actual event - little possibility for follow up </li></ul><ul><li>Media interest may not be gained when the event is based solely on ‘potential’ talent, rather than well-known industry names </li></ul>
  38. 38. Preliminary ideas- CD release Pro Con <ul><li>Can be flexible with dates of release </li></ul><ul><li>Production not limited too much by availability and weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Various artists may have an opportunity to contribute , working around prior engagements </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially wider audience than a music festival where only the audience participates </li></ul><ul><li>Can continue to resonate throughout the community by sharing of the CD- also out of the area into other communities, sharing Newcastle music </li></ul><ul><li>Effects are ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>Success is not guaranteed </li></ul><ul><li>CD purchase could be limited by technological advances such as the burning of CD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity of IPod's and internet purchases which may not totally cover the costs of production </li></ul><ul><li>Production, distribution and compilation of CD may not be able to be done locally, compared to festival where volunteers can all be from local area </li></ul><ul><li>CD release has less of the ‘excitement’ factor than the anticipation of a big new event </li></ul>
  39. 39. Preliminary ideas- Music festival Pro Con <ul><li>Access to a number of different artists </li></ul><ul><li>Live arena is excellent for constructing community identity </li></ul><ul><li>Held in large outdoor setting to appreciate the natural background that Newcastle has to offer </li></ul><ul><li>A festival with big names has the potential to draw tourism to the area </li></ul><ul><li>Can directly target a particular audience with the choice of 'popular' music to be included. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to celebrate past musical successes from Newcastle </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to showcase up and coming talent from Newcastle and give a stepping stone into the industry through public recognition and possible media attention </li></ul><ul><li>Foster future growth in tourism in Newcastle through media interest in the festival </li></ul><ul><li>Certain artists may not be available on the day/week </li></ul><ul><li>Having the festival held on just one day may limit attendance if there are other things on for potential audience members </li></ul><ul><li>A long festival may not have enough interest to warrant cost </li></ul><ul><li>Weather could potentially ruin the day </li></ul><ul><li>May not be an option which allows for too much community contribution, other than as an audience at the event </li></ul><ul><li>May miss a huge audience which doesn't fall into the categories designated by the choice of music e.g. elderly or very young </li></ul><ul><li>Could attract negative attention if the festival is not a success </li></ul><ul><li>Could put a negative stigma on Newcastle artists if the festival is not successful </li></ul>
  40. 40. Final choice <ul><li>The proposal is for a music festival to be held over a long weekend in October. </li></ul><ul><li>From the pro/con lists, this idea appeared to have the most merit in celebrating popular music and supporting an infusion of cultures in the community through the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been some consideration to overcome the negatives identified, such as holding the event over three days, encouraging local volunteers and incorporating different elements to the event which will attract a varied audience. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Justification of target audience- who? <ul><li>The group has decided to target a varied audience, given that all generations and varied groups of people contribute to what the community identifies as their “culture”. </li></ul><ul><li>If all age groups have the opportunity to participate, then a more diverse culture is represented and, is potentially further developed. </li></ul><ul><li>In the music festival setting, “the public attends and participates in varying degrees of passivity and activity, consuming the culture but producing the environment, too. All this creates feedbacks, cultural and economic, upon which the performers, promoters and public build in preparation for the next festival“ (Waterman, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>This aids in the development of cultural identities and social cohesion. The public creates an environment unique to festivals and this is of significance to the  promotion of the festival idea over less interactive formats of music events. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedbacks are significant as the cultural gains can be aligned with the economic benefits the event could bring (tourism, media attention, advertising and further interest) as well as the possibility of being able to host an ongoing event (annually or otherwise) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Justification of the festival as an event- what? <ul><li>“ Successful festivals can help recreate the image of a place or contribute toward the exposure of a location” (Felsenstein and Fleischer, 2003). This works as a positive for both locals and tourists. </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals are a means of gathering a large group of people in one place to celebrate popular music together, therefore contributing to a manifestation of culture and cohesively binding a society or community together </li></ul><ul><li>The festival format allows us to access a wide targeted audience within one space and also enables the amalgamation of a variety of performances or activities to enjoy across the designated long weekend. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Justification of the place- where? <ul><li>The festival is to be held on the Harbour foreshore- an identifiable social space which connects with Novocastrian history and also the future </li></ul><ul><li>Cummings (2006) describes communities like tribes and suggests the “investigation of spaces in which tribal gatherings take place, as it is in these anchoring places that we may be able to find visible traces of tribal allegiance”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The working harbour- Newcastle as a coal-mining town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The beaches- a popular tourist draw card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The foreshore- embracing best of both waterfront settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further, the destination creates “spaces in which neo-tribal bonds are manifested, as they offer festival-goers a collective opportunity in which performers and fans can experience music and lifestyle” (Cummings, 2006) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Justification of event timing- when? <ul><li>An event over the October long weekend: </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 th October, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>This falls on a recognised long weekend eliminating the problem of not having audiences who may need to work on the Monday </li></ul><ul><li>The dates are within university and school holidays and may be a form of entertainment for students </li></ul><ul><li>The event would fall in the midst of the King Edward Park which could further promote tourism to the area </li></ul><ul><li>October weather conditions in the past for the area have shown average temperatures and low rainfall comparative to other months which is a positive for festival goers </li></ul>
  45. 45. Justification of a music festival as a means of celebrating popular music- why? <ul><li>Music festivals are &quot;temporary environments that contribute to the production, processing and consumption of culture, concentrated in time and place” (Waterman, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating a sense of community, creating a fusion of cultural values and encouraging cohesion of a versatile and varying group of people in one place (Newcastle) </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestation of music over one weekend to celebrate the musical talent the city has to offer. Also potentially a catalyst for up and coming talent </li></ul><ul><li>The event will attempt to achieve three of the outcomes of 'producing, processing and consuming culture' through music shared in a social space. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary fixtures such as the instruments will be scattered in a public space to become portals for the celebration of culture and motifs of the event, alerting target audiences and encouraging sharing and expression of culture through music </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ryan Farrell Group A- online tutorial CULT3120 Further Justification and Details of the event
  47. 47. Justification for Promotion of Indigenous Music and Culture <ul><li>The events could be used to encourage the incorporation of indigenous music into the mainstream, used to acknowledge the traditional owners of the land and used to appreciate the contributions of all individuals in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>This will also mean that a wider variety of music can be sampled at the festival. Traditional indigenous music would be available for all to hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous culture could be taught through the music, or along side it, giving the wider community more knowledge about Aboriginal history and culture. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Justification of the Concert Night <ul><li>A concert night could make for a brilliant conclusion to the festival, hopefully bringing all the people that attended the other events together for the last night and using this night to showcase all of the talent of the local area. </li></ul><ul><li>You could think of the other events as a build up to this finale, and thus bringing the community together, where they might not have been during the rest of the festival due to the scattered events. </li></ul><ul><li>The night could be used to showcase all of the talent that was present during the festival, as well as (if possible) bringing a big name local band to the attention of a large portion of the community in a live set. </li></ul><ul><li>This could also be an opportunity for a big name band to appear at the festival. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Location Size is everything when talking about festivals, and a 3 day festival will be a huge event for the Newcastle community, probably one of the biggest it has seen. Multiple locations can be used for the event to make it a city wide festival, and therefore including man more groups and communities. The main event, the concert night, will need a large space, and a stage, so there are a few suitable locations available in the Newcastle area.
  50. 50. Probably the best facilities available for a big event is the Newcastle entertainment centre and showgrounds. There is a huge space for many events, and the entertainment centre is fully enclosed and weatherproof. There are excellent facilities and close by public transport. Some issues though are the size. It is very large and might be too large for what it is needed for. Also, it could be very expensive to book, to due its high desirability, and will most likely be booked during peak seasons and on weekends for farmers markets. Newcastle Entertainment Centre and Showground
  51. 51. Wickham Park Another possible location could be Wickham park. Used before for the Fat as Butter music festival, it is closer to the CBD than the entertainment centre, and smaller as well. It is a very versatile piece of land where multiple stages and stalls and other facilities could be set up to accommodate the festival. Some negatives include the local residents, who protested against the Fat as Butter festival when it moved here, and may do the same again for this festival. Another is the lack of facilities. When compared to the entertainment centre this location is fairly lacking.
  52. 52. Harbour-front and Park Area For the smaller events, this area could be idea. There are numerous park areas where small stages and stalls could be set up, and this area is very close to the CBD, and gets a lot of pedestrian traffic and could easily attract many people. Some negatives include the heavy pedestrian traffic, and the proximity to the harbour. These factors could hamper approval for the use of the site, and also hamper setup of the area.
  53. 53. Honeysuckle Honeysuckle could be a perfect location for the smaller events also. In the heart of the CBD, there are many old railway houses that have been converted for social events. These large covered areas, which are right next to the harbour and a restaurant district, could be perfect in attracting people, and would also suit our needs with plentiful facilities and very close proximity to train stations and other public transport facilities. Some negatives could be the popularity of the location, making it difficult to book, and also the enclosed spaces could make the event more crowded and less easily accessible.
  54. 54. BY: TOM ARTHUR GROUP A CULT3120 Connections to Place Subcultures and their Benefits to Newcastle
  55. 55. What is a musical subculture? <ul><li>“ Subcultures are groups of people that are in some way represented as non-normative and/or marginal through their particular interests and practices, through what they are, what they do, and where they do it” (Gelder 1). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Youth subcultures tend to be music subcultures” (Thornton 19) </li></ul><ul><li>Musical subcultures are groups of people that reject a “parent” culture , and share a common set of aesthetics, philosophies, and tastes in music. Urban centres possess a diverse ranges of subcultures, rather than one uniform culture. </li></ul>
  56. 56. What is a music scene? <ul><li>“ That cultural space in which a range of musical practices coexist , interacting with each other within a variety of processes of differentiation , and according to widely varying trajectories of change and cross-fertilization ” (Straw 469) </li></ul><ul><li>Newcastle’s music scene is traditionally located within its CBD – Hunter Street, King Street, and Darby Street – as well as in pockets of suburban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific musical subcultures in Newcastle have tended to frequent specific venues in its music scene. This allegiance to a particular place has been weakening . </li></ul>
  57. 57. Venues in the Newcastle Music Scene There are over 450 music venues in Newcastle, the Central Coast, and the Hunter Valley (Newcastle Music Directory). A number of these venues are epicentres for musical subcultures.
  58. 58. <ul><li>Musical Genre/Subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Locations in Newcastle (examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Oz Rock - covers (parent culture) </li></ul><ul><li>Club/Dance Music (dominant subculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Indie/Alternative Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Metal/Hardcore Punk </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-folk/experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic/singer-songwriter </li></ul><ul><li>Blues (peripheral subculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz (peripheral subculture) </li></ul><ul><li>The Brewery, suburban hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Fanny’s, King Street, The Cambridge, The Grand, CBD Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>The Cambridge, The Brewery, The Northern Star </li></ul><ul><li>The Cambridge, The Lucky Country (closed), Hamilton Station, Wickham Park Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>The Lass O’Gowrie </li></ul><ul><li>The View Factory, The Brewery, The Lass O’Gowrie, suburban hotels </li></ul><ul><li>The Wickham Park Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>The Dungeon, Lizotte’s </li></ul>Subcultures in the Newcastle scene
  59. 59. Blending Venues, Dissolving Subcultures: A Case Study <ul><li>New licensing laws have caused some important venues to close, such as the Lucky Country. </li></ul><ul><li>The heavy-metal/hardcore punk scene has been effectively forced out into the Cambridge Hotel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cambridge is already the locus for multiple subcultures. </li></ul><ul><li>A shared site equals blended subcultures equals weakened identity: “the exercise of combining styles or genres will rarely produce the sense of a synthesis whose constituent elements are displaced, or through which musical communities are brought into new alliances . . . Rather, one sees the emergence of a wide variety of stylistic or generic exercises, in which no style begins as privileged or as more organically expressive of a cultural point of departure (Straw 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>A strong musical scene is one in which one subculture is allowed to freely create and develop independently of another. Only then should cross-fertilisation occur. </li></ul>
  60. 60. The Festival: A Plan of Attack <ul><li>Performances would occur at various locations around the city. Artists representative of a particular subculture will perform at a venue traditionally associated with that subculture. Heavy metal and hardcore acts would perform at or near the Lucky Country; Neo-folk/experimental acts would play at or near the Lass O’Gowrie, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main stages, placed at culturally neutral sites such as open parks, foreshores, beaches, and civic spaces, would showcase nationally and internationally recognised acts of all genres, so that not one subculture would be perceived as dominating the festival. Should it influence cross-fertilisation to occur, it would occur naturally . </li></ul>
  61. 61. How and Why Subcultural Location Reinforcement Would Work <ul><li>The traditional sites that have lost their subcultural value would be reinstated with these associations. A sense of distinct location and space-related identity will return to these sites, strengthening their cultural associations and giving dwindling subcultures a locus and focus. </li></ul><ul><li>By strengthening subcultures in the city, a combination of focussed ideas and insular creativity would create stronger genre-based music, which would stand out from less-precise genres and scenes. These cores of activity would grow independently and, due to the high proportion of artists per capita in Newcastle, will perpetuate high volumes of nightlife well after the festival. It may also spawn cottage industries of independent record creation and distribution related to these scenes, which happens in cultural hubs around the world. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Benefits to Newcastle <ul><li>Newcastle, in turn, would be “put on the map” as a cultural hub in its own right. It may produce a “Newcastle Sound” in the same way that Liverpool produced Merseybeat, Detroit produced Detroit House, and Dunedin produced the Dunedin Sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercity, interstate, and international tourism may also be significantly boosted if this surge in talent achieves fame and status. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>References </li></ul>
  64. 64. References <ul><li>Ali-Knight, J & Chambers, D (eds) 2006, ‘Case studies in festival and event marketing and cultural tourism’, Leisure Studies Association, vol. 2, no. 92, pp. 1-181. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett, Andy. “Towards a Cultural Sociology of Popular Music.” Journal of Sociology 44.4 (2008): 419-432. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennet, Andy. (2000). Theorizing Music and the Social: New Approaches to Understanding Musical Meaning in Everyday Life. Theory, Culture & Society. Vol, 17, No. 3, 181-184. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of meteorology (April, 2010) [Accessed 27/4/2010] </li></ul><ul><li>Diana Boer, Music Makes the People Come Together: Social Functions of Music Listening for Young People Across, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Cummings, Joanne. (2008). Trade mark registered: Sponsorship within the Australian Indie music festival scene. Continuum: Journal of Music & Cultural Studies. Vol. 22, No.5, 675-685. </li></ul><ul><li>Tia Denora, Music in Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Felsenstein, D. and Fleischer, A. (2003). Journal of Travel Research. 41(1):385-392. </li></ul><ul><li>Frith, S 2004, Popular Music: critical concepts in media and cultural studies, Routledge, London. </li></ul><ul><li>Frow, John. “The Concept of the Popular.” In Frow, John, Cultural Studies and Cultural Value (1995): 60-88. Oxford: Clarendon Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gelder, Ken. “The Field of Subcultural Studies.” The Subcultural Reader. Ed. Ken Gelder. London: Routledge, 1997: 1-15. </li></ul><ul><li>Hesmondhalgh, David. (2008). Towards a critical understanding of music, emotion and self identity. Consumption Markets & Culture. Vol. 11, No. 4, 329-343. </li></ul>
  65. 65. References Continued <ul><li>David J. Hargreaves and Adrian C. North, The Functions of Music in Everyday Life: Redefining the Social in Music Psychology, Psychology of Music 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Hebdige, Dick. “O.K., it's Culture, but is it Art?” In Hebdige, Dick, Subculture: The Meaning of Style (1988): 128-133. London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Katz-Gerro, Tally. (1999). Cultural consumption and Social Stratification: Leisure Activities, Musical Tastes, and Social Location. Sociological Perspectives. Vol. 42, No. 4, 627-646. </li></ul><ul><li>Alan P Merriam, The Anthropology of Music, 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Allan F. Moore, Music Culture and Society: On the Pop-Classical Split, Oxford University Word Press, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Moore, Ryan. (2005). Alternative to what? Subcultural capital and the commercialization of a music scene. Deviant Behaviour. Vol. 26, No. 3, 229-252. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Newcastle Venues.” Newcastle Music Directory. Web. 29 April 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Straw, Will. &quot;Systems of Articulation, Logics of Change: Communities and Scenes in Popular Music.&quot; Cultural Studies 5.3 (1991): 368-388. </li></ul><ul><li>----------. “Communities and Scenes in Popular Music [1991].” The Subcultural Reader. Ed. Ken Gelder. London: Routledge, 1997: 469-478. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney Festival 2010, Festival History, ANZ, Sydney, viewed 20 April 2010 < > </li></ul><ul><li>Thornton, Sarah. Club Cultures: Music, Media, and Subcultural Capital. Oxford: Polity Press, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Throsby, D 2002, The Music Industry in the New Millennium: Global and Local Perspectives, UNESCO, Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Waterman, S. “Carnivals for elites? The cultural politics of arts festivals.” Progress in Human Geography 22.1 (1998): 54-74. </li></ul>
  66. 66. References Continued <ul><li>Yeoman, I., Robertson, M., Ali-Knight, J., Drummond, S., & McMahon-Beattie, U 2004, Festival and events management: an international arts and culture perspective , Butterworth-Heiemann, Oxford. </li></ul><ul><li>Alan P Merriam, The Anthropology of Music, 1964 </li></ul><ul><li> [Accessed 26/04/2010] </li></ul><ul><li> [Accessed 27/04/2010] </li></ul><ul><li> [Accessed 18/04/2010] </li></ul><ul><li> [Accessed 27/04/2010] </li></ul><ul><li> [Accessed 27/04/2010] </li></ul>