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Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
Biology 112 Presentation
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Biology 112 Presentation

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  1. Key Concepts  The green plants include both the green algae and the land plants. Green algae are an important source of oxygen and provide food for aquatic organisms; land plants hold soil and water in place, build soil, moderate extreme temperatures and winds, and provide food for other organisms.  Land plants were the first multicellular organisms that could live with most of their tissue exposed to the air. A series of key adaptations allowed them to survive on land. In terms of total mass, plants dominate today's terrestrial environments.
  2. Green Plants • The green plants consist of the green algae and land plants. • Green algae are important photosynthetic organisms in freshwater habitats, while land plants are the key photosynthesizers in terrestrial environments. • Green algae have traditionally been considered protists, but we study them along with land plants for two reasons: (1) they are the closest living relatives to land plants, and (2) the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred when land plants evolved from green algae.
  3. Analyzing Morphological Traits • Biologists have long hypothesized that green algae are closely related to plants on the basis of several key morphological traits, including their chloroplast and cell wall structures. • The green algae include species that are unicellular, colonial, or multicellular and that live in marine or freshwater habitats. • Based on morphology, the major phyla of plants are grouped into three categories: nonvascular plants, seedless vascular plants, and seed plants.
  4. Analyzing Morphological Traits • Nonvascular plants lack vascular tissue— specialized groups of cells that conduct water or dissolved nutrients from one part of the plant body to another. • Seedless vascular plants have well-developed vascular tissue but do not make seeds.
  5. Morphological Diversity: Nonvascular and Seedless Vascular Plants Nonvascular plants do not have vascular tissue to conduct water and provide support. Bryophyta (mosses) Hepaticophyta (liverworts) Anthocerophyta (hornworts) Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue but do not make seeds. Lycophyta (lycophytes Psilotophyta Sphenophyta Pteridophyta (ferns) or club mosses) (whisk ferns) (horsetails)
  6. Morphological Diversity: Nonvascular and Seedless Vascular Plants Nonvascular plants do not have vascular tissue to conduct water and provide support. Bryophyta (mosses) Hepaticophyta Anthocerophyta (hornworts) (liverworts)
  7. Morphological Diversity: Nonvascular and Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue but do not make seeds. Lycophyta (lycophytes Psilotophyta Sphenophyta Pteridophyta (ferns) or club mosses) (whisk ferns) (horsetails)
  8. Analyzing Morphological Traits • A seed consists of an embryo and a store of nutritive tissue, surrounded by a tough protective layer. • Seed plants have vascular tissue and make seeds.
  9. Morphological Diversity: Seed Plants Seed plants have vascular tissue and make seeds. Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) Cycadophyta (cycads) Other conifers (redwoods, junipers, yews) Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) Pinophyta (pines, spruces, firs) Anthophyta (angiosperms or flowering plants)
  10. Analyzing Morphological Traits • Within the seed plants, gymnosperms produce seeds that do not develop in an enclosed structure. • In the flowering plants, or angiosperms, seeds develop inside a protective structure called a carpel.
  11. Why Do Biologists Study the Green Plants? • Biologists study plants not only because they are fascinating organisms but also because we could not live without them. • Agriculture, forestry, and horticulture are among the most important endeavors supported by biological science.
  12. Plants Provide Ecosystem Services • An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a particular area, along with physical components of the environment such as the atmosphere, precipitation, surface water, sunlight, soil, and nutrients. • Plants provide ecosystem services because they add to the quality of the atmosphere, surface water, soil, and other physical components of an ecosystem.
  13. Plants Provide Ecosystem Services • Plants alter the landscape in ways that benefit other organisms: – They produce oxygen via oxygenic photosynthesis, – They build soil by providing food for decomposers, – They hold soil and prevent nutrients from being lost to erosion by wind and water, – They hold water in the soil, and – They moderate the local climate by providing shade and reducing the impact of wind on landscapes.
  14. Plants Provide Ecosystem Services • Perhaps the most important ecosystem service provided by plants involves food. • They are the dominant primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems and provide the base of the food chain in the vast majority of terrestrial habitats. • Plants are eaten by herbivores, which are eaten by carnivores, or meat eaters. Some organisms are omnivores—those that eat both plants and animals. • Finally, green plants are the key to the carbon cycle on the land.
  15. Providing Food, Fuel, Building Materials, and Medicines • Plants provide most of our food supply as well as a significant percentage of the fuel, fibers, building materials, and medicines that we use. • Agricultural research began with the initial domestication of crop plants. • Artificial selection for plants with certain properties has lead to dramatic changes in plant characteristics.
  16. Providing Food, Fuel, Building Materials, and Medicines • Humans have historically relied on plant-based fuels such as wood and coal. • Plants provide us with important sources of raw material for clothing and household articles. • Woody plants provide lumber to build houses and furniture, and to make paper. • Plants are a key source of medicines.
  17. Humans Have Relied on Plant-Based Fuels Plant-based fuels COAL FORMATION 1. Dead plant material Wood accumulates in marshy or Petroleum and boggy habitats. Coal natural gas What energy sources do you think will be 2. If oxygen in water is important in scarce, the organic the future? matter decays only partially, forming peat. Peat 3. If the peat deposits Pressure Pressure are later covered by sediments and compressed, the Sediments resulting pressure and heat change them Coal into coal.
  18. Humans Have Relied on Plant-Based Fuels Plant-based fuels Wood Petroleum and Coal natural gas What energy sources do you think will be important in the future?
  19. Humans Have Relied on Plant-Based Fuels COAL FORMATION 1. Dead plant material accumulates in marshy or boggy habitats. 2. If oxygen in water is scarce, the organic matter decays only partially, forming peat. Peat 3. If the peat deposits Pressure Pressure are later covered by sediments and compressed, the Sediments resulting pressure and heat change them Coal into coal.
  20. How Do Biologists Study Green Plants? • To understand how green plants originated and diversified, biologists use three tools: (1) They compare the fundamental morphological features of various green algae and green plants, (2) They analyze the fossil record of the lineage, and (3) They assess similarities and differences in DNA sequences from homologous genes to estimate phylogenetic trees. • Let’s consider each of these complementary strategies.

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