Measure For Women Empowerment


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This presentation was given at XLRI as a part of a study on Millenium Development Goals in the Development Economics Course. Hope its useful!

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Measure For Women Empowerment

  1. 1. Gender Equalityand Women Empowerment<br />Anjali Agarwal | Kshitij Jain | Tushar Walwadikar<br />
  2. 2. Salient Features<br />Women Empowerment<br />Important Issue in NFHS-3 2006-07<br />Millennium Development Goal 4<br />Four specific indicators<br /><ul><li>Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education
  3. 3. Ratio of literate women to men 15-24 years old
  4. 4. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
  5. 5. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments </li></ul>Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 <br />“It is a process through which women gain power over men or as a process that enables women to gain access to decision-making processes and instances of power” <br /> - Oxaal & Baden - 1997<br /><ul><li>Public Health Consequence
  6. 6. Strategic Theme of NPP 2000
  7. 7. MDG 3 & 4</li></li></ul><li>Focus of Presentation<br />Selected indicators of gender disparity <br />Access and control over resources<br />Women’s decision making role<br />Freedom of movement<br />Acceptance of gender unequal norms<br />
  8. 8. Gender Disparity in Literacy<br />
  9. 9. Gender Disparity - Media Exposure<br />Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media <br />Media exposure leads increases awareness and generates curiosity<br />Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema<br />Men 88%<br />Women 71% <br />Gender Disparity 19%<br />
  10. 10. Employment<br />Among the population age 15-49 <br />Men are 2 times as likely to be employed <br />Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash<br />Among the employed,<br /> 64% of women vs. 91% of men earn cash<br />Female share of population employed for cash in non-agricultural occupations is 22%<br />
  11. 11. Occupation Disparity<br />59% women are occupied in agriculture as opposed to 33% men<br />
  12. 12. Financial Empowerment<br />NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings <br />Does employment empower women financially?<br />20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband<br />24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them<br />
  13. 13. Control over Women’s Earnings<br />Women’s report about their own earnings<br />Men’s report about their wife’s earnings<br />Mainly husband<br />Husband & wife jointly<br />Mainly wife<br />
  14. 14. Reluctance to Participate in Spending<br />
  15. 15. Access to any other financial resources<br />
  16. 16. Household Decision Making<br />63% of the women are not empowered to run their own households.<br />
  17. 17. Other hurdles to Gender Equality<br />Limited Freedom of Movement<br />Gender norms that promote men’s control over women<br />Survey results<br />The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community.<br /><ul><li>Wife beating
  18. 18. A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes</li></li></ul><li>“I feel wife beating is justified”<br />54% of the women feel that wife beating is justified!<br />20% of the men feel that they have the right to reprimand their wives.<br />
  19. 19. Measure for Women Empowerment<br />Stopping Female Foeticide– Rampant in Metros<br />Stop by penalizing the Medical clinics and Couples -<br /> Under Indian Penal code equivalent to Murder<br />Regulatory bodies to ensure private and government clinics adhere to the rules and restrictions<br />
  20. 20. Improving Female Literacy<br />Increase Literacy among women <br />Will increase the awareness towards their benefits & rights<br />Increase Literacy through special campaign for promoting Girl child and women education<br />A scheme in Uttar Pradesh gives a prize amount to parents for every girl who complete higher secondary education<br />
  21. 21. Effective Political Participation<br />Effective political participation –<br /> increasing political awareness and participation in active politics<br />Constitutional amendments to ensure participation in municipalities and panchayats<br />Political parties should promote women<br />
  22. 22. Self Help Groups & Microfinance<br />Self Help Groups - A vital organ<br />Banks and NGO can give also loans at very nominal interest rate<br />It will empower women at macro level<br />Microfinance and Microcredit&apos;s will lead to a healthier, happier and prosperous India<br />Promoting about 20-25 women to form Self Help Group and start a business.<br />
  23. 23. Free Industrial & Vocational Training<br />Free Industrial and Vocational Training to make women employable.<br />Exclusive ITIs for women.<br />Short term training sessions should be organized by the government to develop work related skills.<br />
  24. 24. Dilution of strict pro-women laws<br />The Logic is more the tougher law is ,more difficult to implement, lesser the conviction rate<br />Highly impracticable law of women harassment in workforce areas which may deter the companies to employ women in order to avoid lawsuits<br />Therefore the dilution is necessary in order to avoid misuse<br />
  25. 25. Tax Benefits<br />As Government is already giving tax<br /> benefits to women employees.<br />Government should give tax benefits to service sector which employ large amount of women employees<br />Sector Specific Tax benefits<br />
  26. 26. Regulation of film and fashion industry<br />Regulation of film and fashion industry which are promoting women as products<br />Cosmetic and beauty industry to be kept under check<br />Consumerism– Detrimental to women at times<br />
  27. 27. Decriminalizing Prostitution and stopping sexual abuse<br />Curb exploitation of sex workers by <br />police & media<br />Incorporate living rights and subsistence for sex workers and legalize the business to ensure non-exploitation<br />
  28. 28. Additional Role of Government<br />Government should formulate the policy which should motivate women entrepreneurs, women self help groups, women bureaucrats<br />Increase the number of women officers in armed forces and in police. It will help in breaking the social taboo.<br />
  29. 29. Finally…<br />Change the attitude that men are<br /> superior to women<br />Respect women as you would respect your parents<br />Compete with women, don’t exploit!<br />
  30. 30. Questions?<br />