Pressure is a word that is misused in our vocabulary. When you start thinking of pressure, it’s because you’ve started thinking of failure. Tommy Lasorda, Former L.A. Dodgers Manager
VSS vs. TPM
Texas Projection Measure (TPM) What is TPM?
TPM is a method for projecting future student scores, or whether a student is likely to pass TAKS assessments, in the next high-stakes grade using students’ current year scale scores.
Texas Projection Measure (TPM) What is TPM?
TPM is a method for projecting future student scores, or whether a student is likely to pass TAKS assessments, in the next high-stakes grade using students’ current year scale scores
Grades 5, 8, or 11 with the exception of writing, which is projected from grade 4 to grade 7 vertical or horizontal depending on the grade and subject
TPM provides projections for all TAKS English- and Spanish-version tests (except 8th grade science)
TPM projections are made separately for each subject area: reading/ELA, mathematics, writing, science, and social studies.
The TPM was used in 2009 for students taking the TAKS, TAKS (Accommodated), and linguistically accommodated testing (LAT) versions of TAKS.
TEA proposes to:
expand the TPM for use with students taking the TAKS–M assessments; and
implement a transition table approach to growth for students participating in TAKS–Alt.
Projections From and To…
TPM Calculations – What’s Included?
A student must test all subjects needed for the calculation in the same language.
A student must test all subjects in TAKS (the “regular” form, Accommodated form, or linguistically accommodated test form)
When projections for students in grades 3–8 are calculated, the student’s reading and mathematics scale scores used must be the vertical scale scores.
TPM requires that a student (1) have a valid scale score in the current-year predictor subjects, (2) have a current-year scale score in the projection subject, and (3) have a valid scale score in the same language (English or Spanish) for all scores used as predictors to receive a projection.
No TPM is available for students who…
take TAKS in the language versions, such as taking TAKS reading in Spanish and TAKS mathematics in English,
do not take all tests that are needed for a projection,
take TAKS for one subject and TAKS–M for another subject, and
are in grades 5 and 8 with student ID information that does not allow their results on the primary reading administration to be matched with records in the TAKS history file.
VSS Student Identified Groups
How will you explain this scenario to the parent of your student?
A 6 th grade student Met Standard on the 2009 Math TAKS test.
According to TPM the student is not projected to Meet Standard on the 8 th grade Math TAKS.
Parent is concerned about how your school plans to respond.
How will you explain this scenario to the parent of you student?
Student did not Meet Standard on the 3 th grade Reading TAKS.
Student is projected to Meet Standard on the 5 th grade Reading TAKS.
Your want the student involved in extra Reading support.
Parent does not want the support offered and says, why worry the student is expected to Meet Standard when it counts in the 5 th grade.
The key is not the will to win…everybody has that. It is the will to prepare to win that is important. Bobby Knight, Texas Tech Men’s Basketball Coach
Having an above average teacher for five years running can completely close the average gap between low-income students and others. - John Kain and Eric Hanushek
Each person at your table should have a different colored marker.
Draw a large circle in the center of your chart paper.
Each person in group will have a section outside the circle.
In your section, explains what added value means.
Tracks the academic achievement of the same student over time.
Minimizes the influence of economics, experiences, privilege, and race.
Takes into account where a student begins the year academically and measures how much the student grows as a result of the school or teacher.
‘ Passing & Preparedness’
Regional College Ready Graduates November’s AEIS Reports will reflect the class of 2008. All Af Am Hisp White Asian Male Female Eco Dis LEP ELA 52% 40% 47% 63% 67% 47% 57% 42% 4% Math 56% 35% 45% 69% 73% 58% 48% 40% 22% Both 37% 23% 29% 53% 58% 38% 37% 24% 3%
The basic score on any test is the raw score, which is simply the number of test questions or items a student answers correctly. A raw score can be interpreted only in terms of a particular set of test questions.
Raw scores are converted to scale scores to determine which performance category is applied for each student in each content area assessed.
A scale score is a conversion of the raw score onto a scale that is common to all test forms for that assessment.
Scale scores can be interpreted across different sets of test questions.
Scale scores allow direct comparisons of student performance between specific sets of test questions from different test administrations.
The scale score takes into account the difficulty level of the specific set of questions on which it is based. It quantifies a student’s performance relative to the passing standards or proficiency levels for such tests as the TAKS.
2100 – Met Standard 2400 – Commended Performance Approximate Range: 1200 – 3300 These are consistent for all grades and subjects where the horizontal scale score is used. Met Standard and Commended Performance - vary by subject and grade (See page 4 of the guide.) Approximate Range: 0 – 1000 New
TAKS Horizontal Scale
For TAKS, the scale scores were defined such that the Met Standard and Commended Performance cuts were always to same scale values across forms and grades
Met Standard = 2100
Commended Performance = 2400
This is known as a horizontal scale
Limitations of horizontal scales
Scale scores across test forms can be compared within a grade, but not across grades for a subject
Performance standards (i.e. Met Standard and Commended) cannot be numerically compared across grade levels
Example: 2100 in Grade 5 ≠ 2100 in Grade 6
It is difficult to evaluate individual student progress from grade-to-grade
TAKS Vertical Scale
A vertical scale allows scores to be compared across grade levels for a subject
Useful for tracking a student ’ s progress in performance across years
Performance standards (i.e. Met Standard and Commended) can be numerically compared across grade levels
Academic Achievement Standards Scale Score Results Are Used To Determine the Student’s Level of Achievement
Vertical or Horizontal?
Why Vertical Scale Scores?
If you don’t have time to do it right, when will you have time to do it over? John Wooden, Former UCLA Men’s Basketball Coach
Reading and Mathematics Vertical Scale Scores
What about TAKS (Accommodated) TELPAS, Alternate Assessments, and EOC Assessments
TAKS (Accommodated) will be reported on the same vertical scale as TAKS
TELPAS will be reported on a vertical scale with score range from approximately 0-1000
TEA is considering a vertical scale for TAKS-M
No plans currently in place for a vertical scale for TAKS-Alt or EOC assessments
Can we assess VSS growth?
The student moved to Texas and was assessed on TAKS for the first time in 2009.
The student was administered a Spanish mathematics TAKS in 2008 and an English version in 2009.
The student was administered a TAKS-M in 2008 and TAKS (Accommodated) in 2009.
The student was administered a TAKS test in mathematics for reading in 2008 and 2009.
A 6 th grade student received a 2009 VSS of S-652 in mathematics. His 2008 VSS in mathematics was S-605.
Analyze the growth.
An 5 th grade student received a 2009 VSS of E-770 in reading . This student’s 2008 VSS was E-720.
Analyze the growth.
VSS Student Groups
Questions and Considerations – Page 7
How close is the current vertical scale score from the ‘Met Standard’ level?
If the score doesn’t meet this academic achievement standard, how far is the score from the ‘Met Standard’ level?
How close is the current vertical scale score from the ‘Commended Performance’ level?
What about these Students? Susan 3 rd -2008 4 th -2009 5 th -2010 6 th -2011 Reading 680 725 750 770 Math 550 570 630 644 Maria 5 th -2008 6 th -2009 7 th -2010 8 th -2011 Reading 620 640 675 700 Math 610 637 665 700 Michael 4 th -2008 5 th -2009 6 th -2010 7 th -2011 Reading 780 800 834 850 Math 725 760 795 823 Frank 3 rd -2008 4 th -2009 5 th -2010 6 th -2011 Reading 400 480 600 650 Math 400 475 550 630
What does the data say about the student?
What will be you priorities?
What is your intervention plan?
VSS Summary Statements
Create a ‘T’ chart which outlines the key points and cautions related to VSS.
Key Points Cautions
Success is not the result of spontaneous combustion. You must set yourself on fire. Fred Shero, Former Philadelphia Flyers Coach
“ When I die, I want to go peacefully and quietly in my sleep like my grandfather did… not screaming and shouting like the passengers in his car at the time.”