King1 Ppt Ch08

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  • King1 Ppt Ch08

    1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
    2. 2. The Nature of Memory <ul><li>The Retention of Information or Experience over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Three Phases of Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Three Stage Model
    4. 4. Computer/Memory Analogy <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing, scanning, downloading vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual, acoustic, semantic encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing, hearing, sound of words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM, hard drive, diskette vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling out of storage, access file vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering the name of your 6 th grade teacher </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Computer Analogy
    6. 6. Encoding: Sensory Input <ul><li>Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of attention? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided attention </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Encoding: Levels of Processing <ul><li>Encoding occurs on a continuum … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory input and general perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) take in visual stimuli, begin to form perception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition and labeling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) label object as a car </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses meaningful and symbolic characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) specific type of car (i.e. convertible) and associate with a particular memory of driving this car </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Encoding: Elaboration <ul><li>Elaboration Can Enhance Memory </li></ul><ul><li>How Extensively is Information Processed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-referencing effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive memory codes </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Identification of Three Memory Systems <ul><li>Sensory Memory : brief storage of environmental information </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senses bring it in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Echoic (auditory) memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic (visual) memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Short Term Memory : A limited capacity memory system where we actively “work” with information </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory—active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal loop—audio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sketchpad—visual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central executive—filters and encodes, retrieves from long term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Memory : A durable memory system that has an immense capacity for information storage </li></ul>
    10. 10. Retention: Short-Term Memory <ul><li>How can we improve STM? </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory encoding - elaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase STM capacity: 7 ± 2 chunks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) phone numbers (###)-(###)-(####) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious repetition of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances STM duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eidetic imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) repeating a phone number until you can write it down </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Retention: Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Relatively Permanent; Unlimited Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Retention: Long-Term Memory
    13. 13. Retention: Explicit LTM <ul><li>Declarative Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus, temporal lobes, limbic system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscious recollection of specific facts and events that can be verbally communicated </li></ul><ul><li>Subtypes of Explicit Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic – autobiographical memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic – knowledge about the world </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Retention: Explicit LTM
    15. 15. Retention: Implicit LTM <ul><li>No conscious recollection of an experience </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum, temporal lobes, hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul>
    16. 16. Memory: Organization <ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Schemas (Script) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Retrieval: Serial Position Effect <ul><li>Primacy Effect: Weaker Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LT memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recency Effect: Stronger Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ST memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding, rehearsal, and working memory </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Difficulty of Memory Retrieval <ul><li>Explicit memory can be tested by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall : Retrieval and reproduction of information from memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition : Deciding whether or not something has been previously encountered </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Retrieval: Special Cases <ul><li>Autobiographical Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: Life time periods, general events, event-specific information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are they accurate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flashbulb memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are they accurate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Repressed Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First forgotten and later recovered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian defense mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivated forgetting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are they accurate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eyewitness Testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccuracy </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Forgetting: Memory Failure <ul><li>Encoding Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Failure / Interference Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive Interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Old ” info interferes with retrieval of “ new ” info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retroactive Interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ New ” info interferes with retrieval of “ old ” info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Forgetting: Interference
    22. 22. Forgetting: Memory Failure <ul><li>Memory Decay and Transience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of time  forgetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not explain all instances of forgetting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to store new information and events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde amnesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to retrieve past information and events </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Motivated Forgetting <ul><li>Motivated forgetting: Forgetting because they want to forget information </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression: conscious motivated forgetting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) trying not to remember an unpleasant experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Repression: unconscious influence of a person’s behavior, thoughts and feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) unpleasant memories pushed out of conscious realm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Application: Study Tips <ul><li>Encoding, Rehearsal, and Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effortful and deep processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate information to yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed practice and test yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul></ul>

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