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King1 Ppt Ch08

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  • Transcript

    • 1.
      • Chapter 8
      • Memory
    • 2. The Nature of Memory
      • The Retention of Information or Experience over Time
      • Three Phases of Memory
        • Encoding
        • Storage
        • Retrieval
    • 3. Three Stage Model
    • 4. Computer/Memory Analogy
      • Input
        • Typing, scanning, downloading vs.
        • Visual, acoustic, semantic encoding
          • Seeing, hearing, sound of words
      • Storage
        • RAM, hard drive, diskette vs.
        • Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
      • Retrieval
        • Pulling out of storage, access file vs.
        • Remembering the name of your 6 th grade teacher
    • 5. The Computer Analogy
    • 6. Encoding: Sensory Input
      • Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding
      • What is the role of attention?
        • Selective attention
        • Divided attention
    • 7. Encoding: Levels of Processing
      • Encoding occurs on a continuum …
        • Shallow processing
          • Sensory input and general perception
            • Ex) take in visual stimuli, begin to form perception
        • Intermediate processing
          • Recognition and labeling
            • Ex) label object as a car
        • Deep processing
          • Uses meaningful and symbolic characteristics
            • Ex) specific type of car (i.e. convertible) and associate with a particular memory of driving this car
    • 8. Encoding: Elaboration
      • Elaboration Can Enhance Memory
      • How Extensively is Information Processed?
        • Vivid examples
        • Self-referencing effect
        • Distinctive memory codes
    • 9. The Identification of Three Memory Systems
      • Sensory Memory : brief storage of environmental information
          • Senses bring it in
          • Passive
            • Echoic (auditory) memory
            • Iconic (visual) memory
      • Short Term Memory : A limited capacity memory system where we actively “work” with information
          • Working memory—active
          • Rehearsal loop—audio
          • Sketchpad—visual
          • Central executive—filters and encodes, retrieves from long term
      • Long-Term Memory : A durable memory system that has an immense capacity for information storage
    • 10. Retention: Short-Term Memory
      • How can we improve STM?
      • Chunking
        • Memory encoding - elaboration
        • Increase STM capacity: 7 ± 2 chunks
        • Ex) phone numbers (###)-(###)-(####)
      • Rehearsal
        • Conscious repetition of information
        • Enhances STM duration
        • Eidetic imagery
        • Ex) repeating a phone number until you can write it down
    • 11. Retention: Long-Term Memory
      • Relatively Permanent; Unlimited Capacity
      • Explicit Long-Term Memory
        • Episodic memory
        • Semantic memory
      • Implicit Long-Term Memory
        • Procedural memory
        • Classical conditioning
    • 12. Retention: Long-Term Memory
    • 13. Retention: Explicit LTM
      • Declarative Memory
          • Hippocampus, temporal lobes, limbic system
      • Conscious recollection of specific facts and events that can be verbally communicated
      • Subtypes of Explicit Memory
        • Episodic – autobiographical memories
        • Semantic – knowledge about the world
    • 14. Retention: Explicit LTM
    • 15. Retention: Implicit LTM
      • No conscious recollection of an experience
      • Procedural Memory
        • Cerebellum, temporal lobes, hippocampus
      • Classical Conditioning
    • 16. Memory: Organization
      • Hierarchies
      • Schemas (Script)
    • 17. Retrieval: Serial Position Effect
      • Primacy Effect: Weaker Effect
        • LT memory
      • Recency Effect: Stronger Effect
        • ST memory
      • Explanations
        • Encoding, rehearsal, and working memory
    • 18. Difficulty of Memory Retrieval
      • Explicit memory can be tested by:
        • Recall : Retrieval and reproduction of information from memory
        • Recognition : Deciding whether or not something has been previously encountered
    • 19. Retrieval: Special Cases
      • Autobiographical Memories
          • Structure: Life time periods, general events, event-specific information
            • Are they accurate?
      • Emotional Memories
          • Flashbulb memories
            • Are they accurate?
      • Repressed Memories
          • First forgotten and later recovered
          • Freudian defense mechanism
          • Motivated forgetting
            • Are they accurate?
      • Eyewitness Testimony
        • Distortion
        • Bias
        • Inaccuracy
    • 20. Forgetting: Memory Failure
      • Encoding Failure
      • Retrieval Failure / Interference Theory
        • Proactive Interference
          • “ Old ” info interferes with retrieval of “ new ” info
          • Examples
        • Retroactive Interference
          • “ New ” info interferes with retrieval of “ old ” info
          • Examples
    • 21. Forgetting: Interference
    • 22. Forgetting: Memory Failure
      • Memory Decay and Transience
        • Passage of time  forgetting
        • Does not explain all instances of forgetting
      • Amnesia
        • Anterograde amnesia
          • Inability to store new information and events
        • Retrograde amnesia
          • Inability to retrieve past information and events
    • 23. Motivated Forgetting
      • Motivated forgetting: Forgetting because they want to forget information
      • Suppression: conscious motivated forgetting
          • Ex) trying not to remember an unpleasant experience
      • Repression: unconscious influence of a person’s behavior, thoughts and feelings
          • Ex) unpleasant memories pushed out of conscious realm
    • 24. Application: Study Tips
      • Encoding, Rehearsal, and Retrieval
        • Accuracy and organization
        • Effortful and deep processing
        • Relate information to yourself
        • Distributed practice and test yourself
      • Mnemonic Strategies
        • Keyword method
        • Acronyms