Evolution Of Microprocessor

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Evolution Of Microprocessor.

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Evolution Of Microprocessor

  1. 1. MC1702 MICROPROCESSOR AND APPLICATIONS Unit 1: Introduction to 8085 MICROPROCESSOR
  2. 2. <ul><li>A Person Strength needs to be tested often so that he learns to be self-reliant. Teachers, by testing their students teach self-discipline and promote self – reliance. In order to gauge a student’s progress, testing is important. Testing also helps students to evaluate their own progress, and to uncover errors of which they may not have been consciously aware </li></ul><ul><li>- Living with the Himalayan Masters </li></ul><ul><li>Swami Rama </li></ul>6/7/09-2 nd hr
  3. 3. TEXT BOOKS <ul><li>Mohamed Rafiquzzaman “ Introduction to Microprocessors and Microcomputer – Based System Design” 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Walter A Triebel, Avtar Singh, “ the 8088 and 8086 Microprocessors Programming, Interfacing, Software, Hardware and Applications”, PHI Pvt Ltd., 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Barry B Brey, “ The INTEL microprocessors 8086/8088, 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 Architecture, Prorgramming and Interfacing, “PHI, 2001. </li></ul>
  4. 4. HOT CHIPS – NOT MEANT FOR SNACKS JOHN VON NEUMANN QUOTES - “ ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS LOVE MICROPROCESSORS WHEREAS COMPUTER ENGINEERS HATE IT”
  5. 5. Introduction To 8085 MICRO PROCESSOR Evolution of Intel Microprocessors: 1971 to 2007
  6. 8. <ul><li>Gordon Moore once observed that the speed and power of microprocessors seems to double every 12 to 18 months. This trend has held true for the past 20 years and is showing no sign of slowing down. </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for the future of computing? What other technologies can you think of which get faster and more powerful every year, and yet also get cheaper and more affordable! </li></ul>
  7. 9. The system that changed the power of computing
  8. 10. <ul><li>The 4004 was Intel's first microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>This breakthrough invention powered the Busicom calculator and paved the way for embedding intelligence in inanimate objects as well as the personal computer. </li></ul>
  9. 11. 2000: Pentium® IV Processor
  10. 16. <ul><li>Stored Program Concept </li></ul><ul><li>There are three major parts </li></ul><ul><li> - The CPU </li></ul><ul><li> - The memory unit </li></ul><ul><li> - The I/O devices </li></ul><ul><li>• Today the CPU circuitry has been reduced to ICs called the microprocessor , </li></ul><ul><li>the entire computer with the three parts is called a microcomputer </li></ul><ul><li>• Several registers (e.g., flip-flops wired in series with each other) </li></ul><ul><li>• The basic timing of the computer is controlled by a square wave oscillator </li></ul><ul><li>or a clock generator circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>– Synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>– Determines how fast the program can be fetched from memory and executed </li></ul><ul><li>• Memory Read or Fetch Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>– IP: Instruction Pointer </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Three Bus System Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>• A collection of electronic signals all dedicated to particular task is called a bus </li></ul><ul><li>– address bus </li></ul><ul><li>– data bus </li></ul><ul><li>– control bus </li></ul><ul><li>• Data Bus </li></ul><ul><li>– The width of the data bus determines how much data the processor </li></ul><ul><li>can read or write in one memory or I/O cycle </li></ul><ul><li>– 8-bit microprocessor has an 8-bit data bus </li></ul><ul><li>– 80386SX 32-bit internal data bus, 16-bit external data bus </li></ul><ul><li>– 80386 32-bit internal and external data buses </li></ul><ul><li>• How can a 64-bit (or 16 bit) microprocessor access an 8-bit memory? </li></ul><ul><li>– The trick is to divide the memory into banks </li></ul><ul><li>– 64-bit Pentium requires eight banks of memory with each bank set up </li></ul><ul><li>to be one-byte wide </li></ul><ul><li>– Bank enable signals are then output by the microprocessor to specify </li></ul><ul><li>which bank to access </li></ul>
  12. 19. Block diagram of a microprocessor-based computer system Memory system Microprocessor I/O system Buses DRAM SRAM Cache ROM Flash memory EEPROM SDRAM 8086 8088 80186 80286 80386 80486 pentium printer Serial Commns FDD HDD Mouse CD-ROM Plotter
  13. 20. <ul><li>Who Developed the Analytical Engine, the punched card, the First Electronic Calculator </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Von Neumann Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantage of using higher versions of microprocessors </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>

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