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Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
Chapter12vcu
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Chapter12vcu

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  • 1. Major Categories of Drugs
    • Tolerance : is indicated by a state of progressively decreased responsiveness to a drug.
    • Dependence : the physiological distress and physical pain a person suffers if he or she goes without the drug for any length of time.
  • 2. Drugs and Crime
    • The relationship between drugs and crime are commonly associated with criminal behavior.
    • There are four major drug categories
      • 1) Hallucinogens
      • 2) Stimulants
      • 3)Opiate Narcotics
      • 4) Sedative-Hypnotics
  • 3. Major Categories of Drugs
    • Hallucinogens or Psychedelics : chemical that lead to the a change in consciousness involving an alteration of reality.
    • Stimulants: chemicals that are used to stimulate central nervous system functions. Ex. Caffeine, MDMA, ect.
    • Opiate Narcotics: chemicals that have both sedative and analgesic properties.
    • Sedative-Hypnotic: chemicals that depress the central nervous system functions.
  • 4. Hallucinogens
    • Marijuana is the most commonly used hallucinogen and is assumed to be linked to crime.
    • Marijuana does not seemed to be linked to violent crime, however, sale and distribution is an issue.
  • 5. Stimulants
    • Heavy users of amphetamines typically prefer to inject methhamphetamine directly into their bloodstream.
    • During the “speed runs” they usually take part in aggressive or violent behavior.
    • Amphetamines do not cause people to become violent but they do increase the likelihood that an already violently prone to become violent.
  • 6. Stimulant
    • MDMA: (Ecstasy) is a synthetic drug that is considered a stimulant but with some strong psychedelic effects.
    • Known as the “club drug”
    • Beyond the illegal trafficking of the drug, no direct connections have been made between MDMA ingestion and crime.
    • MDMA becomes lethal when it is not made under ideal and precise conditions.
  • 7. The Depressants
    • Club Drugs: GHB and Rohypnol are both central nervous system depressants.
    • Rohypnol is most often associated with the Date Rape because of its use in the club scene.
    • The Drug Induced Rape Prevention Act of 1996 was a result the increase in use of Rohypnol and date rape cases.
  • 8. The Depressant
    • Alcohol : The number one drug of abuse.
    • Alcohol is responsible for more deaths and violence than all other drugs combined.
    • Some research calls alcohol the catalyst for crime.
  • 9. Drugs and Crime
    • The relationship between drugs and crime may be viewed from two perspectives:
      • 1) the use, sale, manufacture, distribution and possession of an illegal drug.
      • 2) the pharmacological effects of certain drugs have on a user’s behavior promoting criminal actions.
  • 10. Drugs and Crime
    • Research Findings
    • 1) More individuals are incarcerated or held in jails and prisons for drug offenses than for any other offense;
    • 2) Arrestees frequently test positive illicit drug use;
    • 3) Arrestees and incarcerated offenders were often under the influence of illicit drugs when committing their offenses
  • 11. Drugs and Crime
    • Research Findings
    • 4) Some offenders commit property crime to support their drug habit
    • 5)Drug trafficking often engenders violent crime
    • 6) The drug-crime relationship is difficult to identify measure
  • 12. Drugs and Crime
    • Tripartite Conceptual Model
    • Goldstein identifies three principle types of drug related crime:
      • 1) psychopharmacologically driven crime
      • 2) systemic crime
      • 3)economically compulsive crime.
  • 13. Drugs and Crime
    • Pscyhopharmacological : as a result of short-term or long-term ingestion of specific drugs or chemical substances become excitable or irrational and demonstrate violent behavior.
  • 14. Drugs and Crime
    • Systemic : component of the model hypothesizes that crime arises out of the system of drug trafficking and distribution.
    • For Example: The production, distribution, and selling of powder and crack cocaine have been associated with violence although the amount of violence fluctuates with the illicit market economy.
  • 15. Drugs and Crime
    • Economically Compulsive: crime refers to criminal behavior that supports an expensive drug addiction.
  • 16. Drugs and Crime
    • 77 million of Americans 12 years and older reported some use of an illicit drug at least once during their lifetime
    • (National Household Survey on Drug Use).
    • 70% of all inmates have committed some type of drug offense.
    • 85% of federal inmates are incarcerated for a drug offense (a majority were involved in trafficking).
  • 17. Drugs and Crime
    • The most common drug is Marijuana followed by Cocaine.
    • 27% of the population are also multiple drug users.
  • 18. Drugs and Crime
    • Crack: The most common method of cocaine smoking in the US is freebasing.
    • The relationship between crack and crime remains obscure.

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