Chapter ten


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Chapter ten

  1. 1. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>There are approximately 234,000 sex offenders under the care, custody, of correction agencies on any given day. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994: Legislation created to deal with the increase in sexual offenses that have been occurring in the US. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children </li></ul><ul><li>and Sexually Violent Offender Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to require convicted child molester and sexually violent offenders to notify law enforcement of their whereabouts for ten years after they are released from prison, parole, or community supervision. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>Megan’s Law: </li></ul><ul><li>Requires states release registration </li></ul><ul><li>information to the public when it is </li></ul><ul><li>necessary for public safety. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>Lychner Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Required the FBI to establish the national </li></ul><ul><li>offender database and to handle sex </li></ul><ul><li>offender registration and notification in </li></ul><ul><li>states unable to maintain “minimally sufficient” </li></ul><ul><li>programs on their own. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>Violence Against Women Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in 1994 was one of the first major </li></ul><ul><li>federal effort to address violence against </li></ul><ul><li>women. The act takes a comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>approach to domestic violence and sexual </li></ul><ul><li>assault through a broad array of legal reforms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Legislation on Sex Offenders <ul><li>Child Pornography Prevention Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 1996 and stipulates that it is </li></ul><ul><li>illegal to purchase or download any </li></ul><ul><li>computer-generated depiction of a child </li></ul><ul><li>engaged in sexually explicit conduct. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rape <ul><li>The definition of rape in accordance to the UCR is broken into three categories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Forcible Rape: the carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly against her will. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Rape by Fraud: having sexual relations with a consenting adult female under fraudulent conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3)Statutory Rape: the carnal knowledge of a girl (under statutory age) with or without her consent. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rape <ul><li>Many rapes go unreported because women in many cases only report those in which the perpetrator is a stranger. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that 40% of all rapes are committed by male acquaintances, boyfriends, or husbands. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Incidence and Prevalence of Rape <ul><li>There has been an increase in the number of rapes that have been reported in this country since 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not necessarily a reflection of an increase in the number of rapes but instead the increase in legislation and media campaigns to promote women reporting the events. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Situational and Victimization Characteristics of Rape <ul><li>Rape is primarily a crime against youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29% of all forcible rapes occur to children under the age of 11. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% of forcible rape occurs to children between the ages of 11 and 17 years. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Situational and Victimization Characteristics of Rape <ul><li>The use of alcohol and other dis-inhibiting substances are common among rapist. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapist are more likely to be intimate partners and not strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons are used in about 25% of the cases. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Offender Characteristics of Rape <ul><ul><li>Rapists tend to be young (according to the UCR nearly half are under the age of 25 years). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1/4 of rapist who are caught have rapped in the past and not been caught. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87% of all rapist have some type of prior criminal record. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapist are usually from the unemployed sector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/4 of all rapes are usually premeditated or planned. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Offender Characteristics of Rape <ul><ul><li>Four Fundamental Causes of Rape Behavior: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Uncontrollable impulses or urges; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Mental illness or disease; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Momentary loss of control precipitated by unusual circumstances; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4)Victim Instigation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classification of Rape Patterns <ul><li>1) Displaced Aggression Rapist: The rapist whose attack is violent and aggressive, displaying minimum or total absence of sexual feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Compensatory Rapist: An offender who rapes in responses to an intense sexual arousal initiated by stimuli in the environment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classification of Rape Patterns <ul><li>3) Sexual Aggressive Rapist: A rapist who demonstrates both sexual and aggressive features in his attack. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classification of Rape Patterns <ul><li>4) Impulsive Rapist: A rapist who demonstrates neither strong sexual nor aggressive features, but engages in spontaneous rape when the opportunity presents itself. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Growth Typology <ul><li>Anger Rape: the offender uses more force than necessary for compliance and engages in a variety of sexual acs that are particularly degrading or humiliating to the female . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Rape: the assailant seeks to establish power and control over his victim. Thus the amount of force and threat used depends on on the degree of submission by the victim. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sadistic Rapist: includes both sexual and aggressive component. In other words the aggression is eroticized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Growth, over half of rapist were identified as power rapist , 40% as anger rapist , and 5% were sadistic . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rape and Pornography <ul><li>The relationship between rape and pornography is shrouded with confusion and surrounded by debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has suggested that under certain conditions pornography facilitates aggressive, sexual behavior toward women. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rape and Pornography <ul><li>Three relationships have been established between erotica and aggression: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) the level of arousal elicited by erotic films is usually increased; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) the level of aggressive content is increased; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3)the reactions of the victims portrayed in these films and photographs effects the expectations of the viewer. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Pedophilia <ul><li>Pedophilia: the use of children by adults for sexual gratification and companionship. </li></ul><ul><li>DSM Definition: a period at least six months long in which recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children occur. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pedophilia Situational and Victimization Characteristics <ul><li>The victims of pedophilia are both male or female. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common pairing is adult male with female child. </li></ul><ul><li>Three quarters of pedophiles choose female victims only. </li></ul><ul><li>The offender and victim know each other in most cases. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pedophilia Offender Characteristics <ul><li>The offender is most often males, but not exclusively male; </li></ul><ul><li>The average age ranges between thirty-six and forty; </li></ul><ul><li>Older pedophiles usually victimize younger children; </li></ul><ul><li>Younger pedophiles usually victimize girls. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Pedophilia Situational and Victimization Characteristics <ul><li>Pedophiles rarely are remorseful about their actions; </li></ul><ul><li>Most often they have problems with alcohol; </li></ul><ul><li>They have a high rate of high school failure and dropout; </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to have unstable work histories in unskilled occupations; </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to come from low socio-economic classes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Classification of Child Offender Patterns <ul><li>Fixated Pedophile: A male who demonstrates a long standing, exclusive preference for children as both sexual and social companions. </li></ul><ul><li>Regressed Pedophile: A male who had fairly normal relationships with adults but later reverted to children for sexual and social companionship because of feelings of inadequacy. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Classification of Child Offender Patterns <ul><li>Exploitative Pedophile: An adult who seeks out children for sexual gratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Pedophile: Is drawn to children for both sexual and aggressive reasons. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Recidivism <ul><li>High levels of recidivism in pedophilia is very likely because of the “learned” aspect of the behavior. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Treatment of Sexual Offenders <ul><li>Sexual Offenders are highly resistant to changing their deviant behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Evocative Therapy: An approach to sex offender therapy that focuses on 1)helping offenders to understand the causes and motivation of their sexual behavior 2) increasing their empathy for the victims of the sexual assault. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Treatment of Sexual Offenders <ul><li>Psychoeducational Counseling : An approach to sexual offending that utilizes a group or class setting to remedy deficits in social and interpersonal skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Treatment: An approach to sex offender therapy concentrates on reducing the targeted behavior through the use of aniadrogen and antidepressant medication. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Treatment of Sexual Offenders <ul><li>Cognitive Behavior Therapy: An approach to sex offender therapy that focuses on changing beliefs, fantasies, attitudes, and rationalizations that justify and perpetuate sexually violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Relapse Prevention: a self-control program designed to teach individuals who are trying to change their behavior how to anticipate and cope with the problem of relapse. </li></ul>