Sherry41

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Ch 41 by Sherry

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Sherry41

  1. 1. Animals need : <ul><li>Carbon skeletons for biosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>fuel to produce ATP and essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients must be supplied in preassembled form </li></ul>
  2. 2. Essential Nutrients Include: <ul><li>Essential amino acids (animal can't synthesize) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acids (unsaturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins (organic molecules, required in small amounts) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals ( inorganic nutrients, required in small amounts) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Undernourished animals have diets deficient in calories </li></ul><ul><li>Malnourished animals are missing one or more essential nutrients </li></ul>Apples contain Vitamin C, Vitamin A and Iron but lack Calcium.
  4. 4. Food Processing in Animals Includes: <ul><li>Ingestion (eating) </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion (enzymatic breakdown of large molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption (uptake of nutrients by cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination (passage of undigested materials out of the body) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Suspension Feeders: Sift small particles from the water Substrate Feeders: Eat as they tunnel through their food Fluid Feeders: Suck nutrient-rich fluids from a living host Bulk Feeders: Eat large pieces of food
  6. 6. Intracellular Digestion: Food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles that have fused with lysosomes Extracellular Digestion: Enzymatic hydrolysis occurs outside the cells in a gastrovascular cavity or alimentary canal
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dental Adaptations correlate with diet </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores generally have longer alimentary canals than carnivores (reflecting the longer time needed to digest vegetation) </li></ul><ul><li>Many herbivores have fermentation chambers where microorganisms digest cellulose </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Vertebrates store excess calories as glycogen in the liver and muscles and as fat. When animal expends more calories than it can consume, the energy stored can be tapped in to </li></ul><ul><li>Overnourishment: the consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal metabolism </li></ul>Glycogen Molecule

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