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Quiz 2 Review

Quiz 2 Review






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    Quiz 2 Review Quiz 2 Review Presentation Transcript

    • Quiz 2 Review
      • Variance within a trait is necessary for it to be heritable
      • The amount of variance within a trait that can be attributed to genetic factors = heritability
      • Traits which do not vary are not heritable (e.g., having one arm = likely result of environment not genes)
      • Heritability is only relevant at the
      • population level, not at the individual
      • level….why?
      • Monozygotic twins = identical
      • Dizygotic twins = fraternal
      • MZ twins share 100% of DNA
      • DZ twins (like regular sibs) share 50%
      • Remember we are talking about 1% of DNA that differs between individuals
      • In human species as whole, we share 99% with all other humans
      • Any trait on which DZ twins are more similar than MZ twins shows evidence of________ influence on that trait.
      • genetic?
      • environmental?
      • Q. If personality traits of MZ twins raised in the same family are only correlated at .50, what can we assume?
      • A. That their shared environment has had little influence on traits, as we would expect the correlation to be higher (given that they share the same genes) if shared environment influenced traits.
      • Behavioral genetics says that:
      • Genes alone influence traits?
      • Genes and environment interact to influence traits?
      • Adoption studies are problematic in that:
      • Those who adopt tend to be from similar socioeconomic backgrounds, so the studies may not be generalizable to all
      • Adoption studies are useful in that:
      • We can compare adoptive children to their biological parents and adoptive parents, and see influences of genetics and environment separately
      • We can get similar effects when we study twins reared together versus apart
      • Shared versus non-shared environmental influences:
      • Which has a greater effect on personality?
      • Studies have shown that amount of tv watching is heritable.
      • Is there a tv-watching gene?
      • What is the likely genetic basis for this and similar findings about specific behaviors?
      • Evolutionary theory explains differential sexual behavior among the sexes:
      • Men tend to have strategy of mating with as many mates as possible
      • Women tend to have strategy of obtaining security and stability of one mate (or at least one at a time)
      • At the root of each strategy is the same goal……
      • … .goal for both sexes is to successfully pass on genes to next generation
      • For women, the burden of carrying/nursing/raising child requires security
      • For men, his biological contribution is much less taxing, he might do better to spread out his genes across more partners
      • For women, sex appeal is connected to health and youth, therefore looks (as indications of being able to bear children)
      • For men, sex appeal is connected to status and wealth (as indications of being better able to support children)
      • Are these roles changing in today’s society?
      • What are some proposed evolutionary explanations for….
      • Jealousy?
      • for men, for women
      • How does it differ between genders?
      • If there is a burning house, and you could only save one person, studies show we would tend to save, in order:
      • Those who share our own genes
      • Those closest to child bearing age
      • What about firefighters, who routinely save strangers at the risk of their own offspring losing a parent?
      • Altruism
      • Evolutionary theory explains male aggression as stemming from…..
      • …competition for resources with other males, so as to be more attractive to females
      • They use this to explain why the poorer and more disenfranchised people are, the more violent men in such circumstances tend to be
      • Freud assumed that behavior stemmed from what went on inside a person’s mind = intrapsychic
      • And that all behaviors had intrapsychic causes = psychic determinism
      • The basis of Freud’s theory is that unconscious drives (for sex, for aggression) are the root of all behavior
      • Eros = the pleasure principle, the sex drive, libido, creative energy
      • Thanatos = the death instinct, aggressive impulses, destructive energy
      • The Mind
      • conscious = all thoughts we can know of and experience
      • preconscious = that which is usually out of awareness, but can enter into awareness (memory)
      • unconscious = we have no way of experiencing the unconscious directly, it is unknowable, we can only glimpse it through dreams, symbolism, etc.
      • Imagine it as an iceberg = only the smallest tip is conscious, the bulk of it below awareness
      • Be able to define the general principles of:
      • the Id
      • the Ego
      • the Superego
      • What role does each play in the psyche?
      • Primary process
      • Secondary process
      • Define each type of thinking, to what part of the psyche does each belong?
      • Types of anxiety:
      • Realistic/objective
      • Moral
      • Neurotic
      • Define each, how might they manifest?
      • What purpose does each serve?
      • What mechanisms do we use to cope with anxiety?
      • Which part of the psyche is responsible for these mechanisms?
      • Defenses:
      • Review the list we discussed in class, know the definitions of them and why they might be used
      • Aspects of psychoanalysis as a treatment:
      • Hypnosis
      • Free association
      • Neutrality of analyst
      • Dream analysis
      • Interpretation of defenses
      • Interpretation of transference
      • Catharsis
      • Insight
      • Parapraxes
      • Criticisms of Freud:
        • Know the key reasons he’s viewed harshly by some
      • Contributions of Freud:
        • Know the key reasons we keep on talking about him all these years later
      • Freud’s psychosexual stages:
      • Oral
      • Anal
      • Phallic
      • Latency
      • Genital
      • Know the themes of each stage, the developmental task of each stage, and what happens when one is fixated at each stage (in a brief, general sense!)