• Save
Defense Mechanisms
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Defense Mechanisms

on

  • 8,817 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
8,817
Views on SlideShare
8,754
Embed Views
63

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
0
Comments
3

5 Embeds 63

http://erkansaka.net 26
http://ccc.blackboard.com 23
http://www.slideshare.net 12
http://elearning.kctcs.edu 1
https://imperial.blackboard.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thank you, was very helpful...examples of each defense mechanism would make it perfect !
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • helpful website help others. This website has practice exams for various nursing classes as well as videos, presentations, notes, nclex help, and many other tools that already are helping me. Hope they help


    http://www.rnpedia.com/
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • nice presentation, keep it up !!! Could u upload more with examples ??
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Presentation Transcript

  • Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms
    • “ Life isn’t easy.”
          • Sigmund Freud
  • Types of Anxiety
    • Anxiety is an unpleasant state that signals that things are not right and something must be done
    • Signals that control of ego is being threatened by reality, by impulses from id, or by harsh controls exerted by superego
  • Three Types of Anxiety
    • Objective/Realistic
    • Moral
    • Neurotic
  • Objective/Realistic Anxiety
    • What you and I would call fear.
    • Actually Freud did, too, in German. But his translators thought “fear” too mundane!
  • Moral Anxiety
    • This is what we feel when the threat comes not from the outer, physical world, but from the internalized social world of the superego.
    • It is just another word for feelings like shame and guilt and the fear of punishment.
  • Neurotic Anxiety
    • The fear of being overwhelmed by impulses from the id.
    • Neurotic is actually the Latin word for nervous, so this is nervous anxiety.
    • It is this kind of anxiety that intrigued Freud most, and we usually just call it anxiety, plain and simple.
  • Purpose of Anxiety
    • In all three types of anxiety, the function of ego is to cope with threats and to defend against dangers in order to reduce anxiety
  • Defense Mechanisms
    • Denial
    • Repression
    • Reaction formation
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Intellectualization
    • Displacement
    • Sublimation
    • Undoing
    • Introjection
    • Regression
  • Denial
    • Blocking external events from awareness.
    • If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it.
    • This is a primitive and dangerous defense.
  • Repression
    • “ Motivated forgetting.”
    • Not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event.
    • This, too, is dangerous, and is a part of most other defenses.
    • Note that, to be a true example of a defense, it should function unconsciously.
    • Usually, it is the irrational fears we call phobias that derive from repression of traumas.
  • Reaction Formation
    • “Believing the opposite”
    • Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite.
  • Projection
    • Involves the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people.
    • In other words, the desires are still there, but they’re not your desires anymore.
  • Rationalization
    • The cognitive distortion of “the facts” to make an event or an impulse less threatening.
  • Intellectualization
    • Involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse.
    • Something that should be a big deal is treated as if it were not.
  • Displacement
    • The redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target.
    • If the impulse, the desire, is okay with you, but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening, you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute.
      • Turning against the self
  • Sublimation
    • The transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether it be sex, anger, fear, or whatever, into a socially acceptable form.
  • Undoing
    • Involves “magical” gestures or rituals that are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts or feelings after they’ve already occurred.
  • Introjection (Identification)
    • Involves taking into your own personality characteristics of someone else, because doing so solves some emotional difficulty.
  • Regression
    • A movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress.
    • When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive.
    • Where do we retreat when faced with stress? To the last time in life when we felt safe and secure
  • Impulses, parapraxes, and humor
    • Defenses work to prevent forbidden impulses from being acted on – or even thought about.
    • Sometimes, though, these feelings and thoughts manage to make their way out into the open, anyway.
    • If this leakage is uncontrolled, it creates a slip of some sort, or a parapraxis .
    • If controlled, it can be the basis of humor and wit.
  • Parapraxes
    • Another name for what is commonly referred to as a “Freudian Slip,” or a leakage of a thought or feeling from the unconscious mind into an overt manifestation by means of a mistake, accident, omission, or memory lapse.
      • Forgetting – We discussed this one earlier, in the example of how I “forgot” the social function that I was to attend. Freud would state that I did this intentionally, so that I could avoid attending the function.
      • Slips – We’ve talked about slips, as well. It’s important to remember that slips do not necessarily have to be “slips of the tongue,” but that they can also be “slips of behavior.”
  • Humor
    • There is an old saying that goes: “A lot of truth is spoken in jest,” and Freud agreed with this assessment.
    • Freud viewed wit as a form of sublimation – an impulse that would otherwise be threatening or harmful can be vented in a way that is harmless, or even enjoyed.
  • Criticisms of Freud
    • Lack of Parsimony
    • Untestability
    • Sexism