Writing Research Reportsclass


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Writing Research Reportsclass

  1. 1. Writing Research Report By : Mrs . Najmunnisa Siddiqui Introduction
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To understand: </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of Research </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Business Research by Method and Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of Research </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of Report </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Report </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in Writing a Report </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. Definition: Research <ul><li>Re·Search: NOUN: a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a (new) understanding. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, © Cambridge University Press 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of research To get more detailed information about our competitors we have to do some research on the Internet as well as in libraries. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  4. 4. Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS . <ul><li>SYSTEMATIC because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZED in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  5. 5. Contd…. <ul><li>FINDING ANSWERS is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer. </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  6. 6. Scientific method <ul><li>a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method refers to bodies of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method </li></ul><ul><li>A method of discovering knowledge about the natural world based in making falsifiable predictions (hypotheses), testing them empirically, and developing peer-reviewed theories that best explain the known data en.wiktionary.org/wiki/scientific_method </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  7. 7. Classification of Research By Purpose IQRA UNIVERSITY Research by Purpose Basic Applied Action R & D Evaluation
  8. 8. Basic Research <ul><li>In its purest form, basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Leadership </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  9. 9. Applied research <ul><li>Applied research , as the name implies, is conducted solely for the purpose of applying, or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Applied researchers may investigate ways to: </li></ul><ul><li>improve agricultural crop production </li></ul><ul><li>treat or cure a specific disease </li></ul><ul><li>improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  10. 10. Evaluation research <ul><li>The purpose is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of 2 or more actions </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  11. 11. 4. Research and development <ul><li>Major purpose is not to formulate or test theory but to develop effective products . </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  12. 12. 5. Action research <ul><li>Purpose is to solve business and management problems through the application of the scientific method </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  13. 13. Classification of Research By Method IQRA UNIVERSITY Research By Method Historical Research Correlational Research Descriptive Research Causal Comparative Experimental
  14. 14. Historical Research <ul><li>It involves studying, understanding, and explaining past events. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Purpose is to arrive at conclusions concerning causes, effects, or trends of past occurrences that may help to explain present events and anticipate future. Should be to predict or explain—not to rehash. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  15. 15. Correlational Research <ul><li>1. Attempts to determine whether and, to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Purpose may be to establish a relationship (or lack of) or to use relationships in making predictions. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  16. 16. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe &quot;what exists&quot; with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys (questionnaires, Delphi method, interviews, normative) </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Job Analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational Studies </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  17. 17. Causal-comparative <ul><li>Here you test the cause and effect relationship of two variables. One is dependant and the other one is independent </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot manipulate the variable </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  18. 18. Experimental Research <ul><li>This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group , the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  19. 19. Steps of Research <ul><li>(1) defining the problem, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) reviewing the related literature, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) formulating the hypothesis, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) selecting the research design and then collecting and analyzing data, and </li></ul><ul><li>(5) developing the conclusion </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  20. 20. Business Research <ul><li>Business research refers to any type of researching done when starting or running any kind of business. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, starting any type of business requires research into the target customer and the competition to create a business plan . </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting business market research in existing businesses is helpful in keeping in touch with consumer demand. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  21. 21. Contd…. <ul><li>Small business research begins with researching an idea and a name and continues with research based on customer demand and other businesses, offering similar products or services. </li></ul><ul><li>All business research is done to learn information that could make the company more successful. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  22. 22. Definition: Report <ul><li>In writing, a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, which is tailored to the ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reports </li></ul><ul><li>report - a written document describing the findings of some individual or group; &quot;this accords with the recent study by Hill and Dale&quot; </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  23. 23. Definition: Business Research Report <ul><li>A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves some business purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Its an orderly communication , a report is given some care in preparation . </li></ul><ul><li>The objective quality of a report is unbiased approach to the facts presented .It seeks truth regardless of its consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Factual Information means events, records or data. </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  24. 24. Rationale for writing Business Report <ul><li>The purpose of a Business report is to communicate information to assist in the business decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Business reports are a type of assignment in which you analyze a situation (either a real situation or a case study) and apply business theories to produce a range of suggestions for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reports might propose solutions for business problems or might present relevant information to assist in the problem solving process </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  25. 25. Examples <ul><li>To determine ways to improve employee morale. </li></ul><ul><li>(statement) To design a new procedure for the company’s annual inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>(statement) </li></ul><ul><li>Should new computers be purchased to replaced the older models? (question) </li></ul><ul><li>Should the office arrangement be open or modular? (question) </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  26. 26. Types of Business Reports : <ul><li>Routine Reports : </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly Report, Performance Report, Review Report, Sales Report, Press Report </li></ul><ul><li>Research Reports: </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Reports & Special Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Enquiry Reports & Investigation Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Information Reports & Analytical Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Reports & Feasibility Report </li></ul><ul><li>Directors’ Report </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Reports </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  27. 27. Steps of Writing Research Report <ul><li>Step 1. Choose Your Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Determine the Scope of the Report </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Locate Information. Consider Your audience. (Identify population and sample) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Determine your research design </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Develop data collection tools </li></ul><ul><li>Step. 6 Gather Your Information </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7. Analyze Your Information </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8. Determine the Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9. Organize Your Report Step 10. Presentation </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Online research journal </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505722/description#description </li></ul>IQRA UNIVERSITY