Control group : The group in a research study that either receives a deferent treatment than the experimental group or is treated as usual.
Control variable : A nonmanipulated variable, usually a physical or mental characteristic of the subjects (such as IQ)
Context sensitivity - being aware when doing research that the persons and organizations under study have cultural preferences that dictate acceptable ways of asking questions and collecting information. Also called 'cultural sensitivity.'
Data :Recorded observations, usually in numeric or textual form
Data analysis - systematically identifying patterns in the information gathered and deciding how to organize, classify, interrelate, compare, and display it. These decisions are guided by the central questions , the types of data available, and by input from stakeholders .
Dependent variable: The change or difference in behavior that occurs as a result of the independent variable; also referred to as the criterion variable, the effect, the outcome, or the posttest.
Document analysis - the systematic examination of instructional documents such as syllabi, assignments, lecture notes and course evaluation results. The focus of the analysis is the critical examination of the documents rather than simple description.
Historical Research : The systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes ,effects or trends of those events which may help to explain present events and anticipate future events.
Naturalistic observation : Observation in which the observer purposely controls or manipulates nothing, and in fact works very hard at not affecting the observed situation in any way.
No participant observation : Observation in which the observer is not directly involved in the situation to be observed, i.e., the observer does not intentionally interact with or affect the object of the observation.
Pilot study : A small-scale conducted prior to the conduction of the actual study; the entire study is conducted, every procedure is followed, and the resulting data are analyzed - all according to the research plan.
Population : The group to which the researcher would like the results of a study to be generalizable.