Paleolithic to Civilizations

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  • 1. Human Pre-History
  • 2. The Paleolithic Period
    • --2.5 Million BCE to 12000 BCE
    • (Before the common era)
    • Use of simple tools, domestication of animals, fire
    • Religion, rituals, and rules for social behavior
    • Relative gender equality
    • Hunter – gatherer period: 1 square mile to support two people
    • After the Great Ice Age – human “progress” quickened
  • 3.  
  • 4. The Neolithic Period
    • Neolithic Revolution– significant changes caused by the development of agricultural societies.
  • 5. How did people learn to “farm”?
    • By accident and luck
    • By necessity because they had to supplement their food
  • 6. The Neolithic Period
    • It was a revolution in economic, political, and social organization (began in the Middle East as early as 10,000 B.C.E. and gradually spread to other centers, including parts of India, North Africa and Europe)
    • Long transition
    • This led to the formation of farming villages, which gradually began to develop into more complex societies.
  • 7. Is complex better?
    • Agricultural settlements led to . . .
    • Population growth
    • Specialization of labor and control
    • Governments / Religious Institutions
    • Stronger Patriarchy & Widespread Slavery
    • Private Property
    • Disease & Immunity from disease
    • Increased dependence on agriculture
  • 8. Bronze Age 3000 & Iron Age 1500 BCE
    • More complex agricultural societies and increased knowledge of metallurgy led to the first CIVILIZATIONS .
    • The word “civilization” comes from the Latin term for city. Formal states, writing, cities, and monumental architecture all characterize civilizations.
  • 9. So . . .
    • If a society is not a “civilization” with cities, complex institutions and record keeping what is that society?
      • Barbarian?
      • Uncivilized?
      • Outsiders?
      • Backward or Unimportant?
    • It depends on the INTERPRETATION!
  • 10. Early River Valley Civilizations