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Much of this chapter in your text deals with how muscles function at the  cellular level .  We will NOT discuss that in th...
Muscles convert chemical energy into physical energy  to help bones to move, hollow tubes to contract, or to pump blood. M...
Skeletal muscles  are those muscles attached to bones and are easily seen on the body’s exterior.  However, other types of...
Open heart surgery Lung Heart Smooth muscle  is essential for propelling materials through our internal tubes Cardiac musc...
All muscles  are  excitable, contractile, elastic and extensible .  This means when nerves stimulate the biceps brachii, i...
A muscle cell on the anterior side  of the arm  may extend up to 35 centimeters and have a diameter of about 100 micromete...
Skeletal muscle  functions to  pull on bones to use them as lever systems, maintain posture, generate heat for temperature...
(Muscle cell) Contents of muscle cell In general, a  skeletal muscle   is composed of layers of skeletal muscle fibers (mu...
( Muscle cell) (Muscle cell) Contents of muscle cell The  perimysium  surrounds  bundles of muscle cells (fasicles) The  e...
Fascia  can be either superficial or deep.
Superficial and deep fascia  of chest wall.
(Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis)
Steak
WHAT IS THE NAME  OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER THAT IS THE INNERMOST AND SURROUNDS EACH  INDIVIDUAL  MUSCLE FIBER (MUSCL...
At the ends of a muscle the connective tissue layers merge to form a fibrous, cordlike  tendon , which typically attaches ...
External oblique aponeurosis
Read  clinical view  in text about  tendonitis.
The  origin  is usually the more proximal stationary attachment while the  insertion  is typically distal and is the movea...
There is  extensive blood and nerve supply  to the skeletal muscles
Motor neurons  are also called  efferent neurons  because they travel away from the center of activity, which is the centr...
Muscle fibers will  atrophy  if they are not periodically stimulated to contract.  We learned earlier, that if the muscles...
 
Ended here Tuesday
Sensory neurons  are also called  afferent neurons  because they travel towards the central nervous system.  They send imp...
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A  CORRECT  STATEMENT? A AFFERENT NEURONS CONDUCT IMPULSES TO  THE SPINAL CORD B MOTOR NEURONS A...
Circular muscles  have their fibers concentrically arranged around an opening or recess.
Pectoralis major Convergent muscles  have widespread muscle fibers that converge on a common attachment site.
Parallel muscles  have fascicules (bundles of muscle fibers) that run parallel to its long axis.  Examples are the rectus ...
Pennate muscles  are so named because their tendons and muscle fibers resemble a large feather.
A  lever  is an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum Effort arm Resistance arm
Bones are the levers, the joint is the pivot or fulcrum (F), the muscle provides the effort (E), and the resistance (R) is...
<ul><li>F (fulcrum) is in the middle in #1 </li></ul><ul><li>R (resistance) is in the middle in #2 </li></ul><ul><li>E (ef...
 
Atlantooccipital joint  is a first class lever system
 
Rising onto the ball of the foot (distal ends of metatarsals) by contacting the calf muscles is an example of a  second-cl...
 
Flexion of the elbow is an example of a  third-class lever system.   Remember, the effort (E) is where the tendon attaches...
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING  IS CORRECT  ABOUT THE PROCESS OF  EXTENDING  YOUR TIBIOFEMORAL JOINT? A IT IS A FIRST CLASS LEVER ...
In this instance, the triceps brachi is the  agonist  (prime mover)
The muscle that opposes the prime mover (agonist) is called the  antagonist
The quadriceps femoris muscles composed of four distinct muscles (only three shown here as the fourth is deep) are  synerg...
Skeletal muscles are named  on the basis of shape, location, attachment, orientation of fibers, relative position, or func...
Naming of skeletal muscles
Naming of skeletal muscles (continued)
In a person’s mid-30s, a  slow progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass  begins as a direct result of increasing inactivity.
Aging  causes muscular atrophy, decreased cardiovascular performance, easy fatigue, loss of muscle elasticity, and poor mu...
These adverse changes can be delayed by regular  moderate  exercise and good nutrition.
Child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Read about the neuromuscular diseases in the  clinical view  in your text ( except ...
EVERYTHING PAST THIS POINT IS EXTRA OR FOR EXAMS
 
 
Motor  and  sensory neurons  are associated with each muscle
 
Figure 10.08a
 
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by non-elastic  tendons .
Individual muscle fibers (muscle cells) are bound together to form bundles, which are in turn bound to other bundles.
 
R
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 10.06tab
Figure 10.co
 
New York strip steaks
Ribeye steaks
Fascia  can be observed in steak that human ingest for nutrition
 
 
 
 
Figure 10.13
 
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10 Muscle Tissue And Organization

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Transcript of "10 Muscle Tissue And Organization"

  1. 1. Much of this chapter in your text deals with how muscles function at the cellular level . We will NOT discuss that in this class because the cellular activity of muscle is normally covered in the Human Physiology (Biol 2420) class.
  2. 2. Muscles convert chemical energy into physical energy to help bones to move, hollow tubes to contract, or to pump blood. Muscles are considered organs because they are composed many different types of tissue (muscle, epithelieal, nervous, connetective, etc.)
  3. 3. Skeletal muscles are those muscles attached to bones and are easily seen on the body’s exterior. However, other types of muscle (smooth muscle and cardiac muscle) are found deeper in the body.
  4. 4. Open heart surgery Lung Heart Smooth muscle is essential for propelling materials through our internal tubes Cardiac muscle , found only in the walls of the heart, pumps blood
  5. 5. All muscles are excitable, contractile, elastic and extensible . This means when nerves stimulate the biceps brachii, it contracts, and the opposing triceps brachii relaxes and extends.
  6. 6. A muscle cell on the anterior side of the arm may extend up to 35 centimeters and have a diameter of about 100 micrometers (about the same thickness of a fine human hair). Because of their potentially extraordinary length, skeletal muscle cells are often referred to as muscle fibers . Make this addition to your notes!
  7. 7. Skeletal muscle functions to pull on bones to use them as lever systems, maintain posture, generate heat for temperature control, promote storage and movement of materials in the body, and to support and stabilize body walls.
  8. 8. (Muscle cell) Contents of muscle cell In general, a skeletal muscle is composed of layers of skeletal muscle fibers (muscle cells), blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue sheaths that surround the muscle fibers and connect muscle to bone. Bone Note the epimysium, which is dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle .
  9. 9. ( Muscle cell) (Muscle cell) Contents of muscle cell The perimysium surrounds bundles of muscle cells (fasicles) The endomysium is the innermost connective tissue layer and surrounds each individual muscle cell (muscle fiber).
  10. 10. Fascia can be either superficial or deep.
  11. 11. Superficial and deep fascia of chest wall.
  12. 12. (Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis)
  13. 13. Steak
  14. 14. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER THAT IS THE INNERMOST AND SURROUNDS EACH INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBER (MUSCLE CELL)? A EPIMYSIUM B ENDOMYSIUM C DEEP FASCIA D PERIMYSIUM E MYELIN SHEATH
  15. 15. At the ends of a muscle the connective tissue layers merge to form a fibrous, cordlike tendon , which typically attaches to bone.
  16. 16. External oblique aponeurosis
  17. 17. Read clinical view in text about tendonitis.
  18. 18. The origin is usually the more proximal stationary attachment while the insertion is typically distal and is the moveable attachment.
  19. 19. There is extensive blood and nerve supply to the skeletal muscles
  20. 20. Motor neurons are also called efferent neurons because they travel away from the center of activity, which is the central nervous system. They innervate muscle fibers within the muscle.
  21. 21. Muscle fibers will atrophy if they are not periodically stimulated to contract. We learned earlier, that if the muscles or nerves are damaged, pulling stress on the periosteum will diminish and bone density will also decrease .
  22. 23. Ended here Tuesday
  23. 24. Sensory neurons are also called afferent neurons because they travel towards the central nervous system. They send impulses to the brain and spinal cord about the activity of the muscles.
  24. 25. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A CORRECT STATEMENT? A AFFERENT NEURONS CONDUCT IMPULSES TO THE SPINAL CORD B MOTOR NEURONS ARE EFFERENT NEURONS C RHABDOMYOLYSIS IS TREATED WITH BAKING SODA D HYPNIC JERKS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED BRAIN FUNCTION E ALL OF THE ABOVE
  25. 26. Circular muscles have their fibers concentrically arranged around an opening or recess.
  26. 27. Pectoralis major Convergent muscles have widespread muscle fibers that converge on a common attachment site.
  27. 28. Parallel muscles have fascicules (bundles of muscle fibers) that run parallel to its long axis. Examples are the rectus abdominis and the biceps brachii.
  28. 29. Pennate muscles are so named because their tendons and muscle fibers resemble a large feather.
  29. 30. A lever is an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum Effort arm Resistance arm
  30. 31. Bones are the levers, the joint is the pivot or fulcrum (F), the muscle provides the effort (E), and the resistance (R) is what is being moved. Please note that the effort (E) is truly located where the tendon attaches to the bone (lever)! Effort (E)
  31. 32. <ul><li>F (fulcrum) is in the middle in #1 </li></ul><ul><li>R (resistance) is in the middle in #2 </li></ul><ul><li>E (effort) is in the middle in #3 </li></ul><ul><li>Remember “FRE#1 #2 #3 </li></ul>
  32. 34. Atlantooccipital joint is a first class lever system
  33. 36. Rising onto the ball of the foot (distal ends of metatarsals) by contacting the calf muscles is an example of a second-class lever system.
  34. 38. Flexion of the elbow is an example of a third-class lever system. Remember, the effort (E) is where the tendon attaches to the bone (lever)!
  35. 39. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS CORRECT ABOUT THE PROCESS OF EXTENDING YOUR TIBIOFEMORAL JOINT? A IT IS A FIRST CLASS LEVER SYSTEM B IT INCORPORATES A MULTIAXIAL JOINT C IT IS A THIRD CLASS LEVER SYSTEM D IT UTILIZES A CONDYLOID JOINT E IT IS A SECOND CLASS LEVER SYSTEM
  36. 40. In this instance, the triceps brachi is the agonist (prime mover)
  37. 41. The muscle that opposes the prime mover (agonist) is called the antagonist
  38. 42. The quadriceps femoris muscles composed of four distinct muscles (only three shown here as the fourth is deep) are synergistic in extending the leg at the knee joint.
  39. 43. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of shape, location, attachment, orientation of fibers, relative position, or function.
  40. 44. Naming of skeletal muscles
  41. 45. Naming of skeletal muscles (continued)
  42. 46. In a person’s mid-30s, a slow progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass begins as a direct result of increasing inactivity.
  43. 47. Aging causes muscular atrophy, decreased cardiovascular performance, easy fatigue, loss of muscle elasticity, and poor muscle healing following injury
  44. 48. These adverse changes can be delayed by regular moderate exercise and good nutrition.
  45. 49. Child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Read about the neuromuscular diseases in the clinical view in your text ( except for myasthenia gravis)
  46. 50. EVERYTHING PAST THIS POINT IS EXTRA OR FOR EXAMS
  47. 53. Motor and sensory neurons are associated with each muscle
  48. 55. Figure 10.08a
  49. 57. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by non-elastic tendons .
  50. 58. Individual muscle fibers (muscle cells) are bound together to form bundles, which are in turn bound to other bundles.
  51. 60. R
  52. 72. Figure 10.06tab
  53. 73. Figure 10.co
  54. 75. New York strip steaks
  55. 76. Ribeye steaks
  56. 77. Fascia can be observed in steak that human ingest for nutrition
  57. 82. Figure 10.13
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