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- 1. Target group: Year 4 Proficiency level: Mix ability Topic: Data Handling Prior Knowledge: All the topics in the Year 4 Mathematics curriculum specification. Curriculum Specifications: 10. Data Handling 10.1 Pictograph 10.2 Bar graph Learning Objectives: 10.1.1 Use pictograph to read and display data 10.2.1 Use bar graphs to read and display data <ul><li>Learning Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of all the activities carried out, pupils will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a pictograph featuring the picture used to represent data </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what one unit of the picture represent </li></ul>
- 2. <ul><li>Construct pictographs to illustrate given information </li></ul><ul><li>Solve a given problem by organizing and interpreting numerical data in pictographs </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a bar graph featuring what the axes represent </li></ul><ul><li>Extract and interpret information from bar graphs by using the mathematical manipulations </li></ul><ul><li>and concepts learnt to obtain answers posed in the multiple choice questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct bar graph to illustrate given information </li></ul><ul><li>Solve a given problem by organizing and interpreting numerical data in bar graph. </li></ul>CCTS: making associations or connections, comparing and constrasting, classifying, grouping and categorising, arranging and sequencing, identifying &quot;true&quot; or &quot;false&quot; statements, making interpretations, solving problems Moral Values: Having analytic and critical thinking & being systematic <ul><li>Extract and interpret information from pictograph by using the mathematical manipulations </li></ul><ul><li>and concepts learnt to obtain answers posed in the multiple choice and true false questions. </li></ul>
- 3. Justification: These activities are aptly planned to serve as enrichment activities for Year 4 pupils. The topic is mainly on data handling which is the last topic of the year. Therefore, it is assumed that the majority pupils have somehow mastered all the topics covered earlier. These activities are carefully planned so as to not only allow pupils to be able to acquire a thorough grasp on data handling and also be able to activate their prior knowledge learnt. By working on these activities which focus on data handling, some of the previous knowledge such as basic operations of whole numbers, fraction, money and mass will be recalled and tested. According to Merrill (2002) , &quot;Learning is promoted when learners activate relevant cognitive structures by being directed to recall, describe or demonstrate relevant prior knowledge or experience.&quot; &quot;Directing learners to recall past relevant experience and checking this recollection for relevance to the task under consideration is more likely to activate an appropriate mental model that facilitates the acquisition of the new set of interrelated skills.&quot; Moreover, all the activities created are based on the pupils' daily lives. The content includes, pupils' favourite fruits, animals on the farm, sweets sold at the store, visitors to the zoo and pupils' results. The content areas are relevant and familiar to them. This can help to secure them in the learning process where they could relate their learning to the real world. Gradually their affective filter is lowered down and this will enhance the learning process. According to Krashen (1982) , in his monitor model, when a learner's needs, motives, attitude or emotional state is affected, their affective filter is up and this will block the input given. Therefore, since they know what they are learning, their emotinal state is stable and they are interested to learn, these activities can be carried out smoothly and the intended learning outcomes can be achieved by the end of the activities. The most important point is that these activities about data handling are carried out using the Interactive Smartboard (IWB). This approach has greatly turned the learning process to become entirely different compared to the traditional way of teaching which is chalk and talk or manilla card teaching aids. Their learning about data handling has become so interesting as they are able to see colourful pictures, pictographs and bar charts which can stir them as well as capture and prolong their attention span. Young learners are visual learners because they learn from concrete ideas rather than abstract ideas. In Piaget's cognitive development theory (1952) , children at the age of 9-10 are at the concrete oprerational stage where they are capable of operations but solve problems by generalizing from concrete experience. Therefore, by allowing them to look at pictures will help them to understand concept at a faster pace. In addition, teaching data handling using IWB is so much convenient, smart, fast and easy. This is because the teacher can plan and prepare her lesson in terms of activities and tasks where she could manipulate the IWB to provide input as well as practices and assessment to the pupils. If the teacher teaches data handling using the black or white board, she might have to draw and construct pictographs, bar graphs and copying questions on board during the lesson which is considered ineefective in the aspect of time management as teachers should always grab every opportunity to allow the pupils to learn more and display their knowledge in their learning process. By using IWB in teaching data handling, pupils can see, interpret and construct pictographs and bar graphs on their own demonstrating their knowledge to their peers. According to Erikson's psychosocial development theory (1963) , children at the age of 9-10 are in the industry vs, inferiority stage. They need to be encouraged to make and do things well, helped to persevere, allowed to finish tasks and praised for trying. Therefore, through IWB, pupils are given the opportunity to interact with the smartboard and perform their mathematical skills and knowledge in front of their peers and thus, their self confidence will be tremendously enhanced. They will feel competent and they will enjoy intellectual work and take pride of doing more things. Once the motivation is developed, learning can be promoted easily and with fun. On the other hand, using IWB in teaching data handling is capable to develop the pupils' hand eye coordination as they construct bar graphs and pictographs. The hidescreen feature is so useful in teaching mathematics. This is because the teacher can control the pupils progress in attempting the questions in the activities. Teacher only reveals the first question to be attempted and ensure that every pupil is engaged in doing that question. Smart pupils will always finish their work fast, as a matter of fact if the questions are all revealed to them, they will create havoc or start to disturb others once they have completed their work. This feature also gives time for the teacher to identify which are the weaker ones that need scaffolding. Vygotsky (1978) stated that children need a supportive social environment in order to achieve learning where they can proceed from their actual zone of proximal development. Teacher can immediately scaffold those who are in confusion and lead them to understanding as much as possible. According to Bloom taxonomy of Education Objectives (1956) , questions in mathematics should be constructed which covers the cognitive domain. The activities created on data handling involve the level of understanding, knowledge, application and analysis.All these happens when the pupils are able to understand the data in pictographs and bar graphs, the connection and relationships of the data, arrange and sequence the data, compare and constrast the data as well as solving problems according to the data shown. Last but not least, the features to check answers after the pupils have attempted the questions are useful and motivating. Pupils will be able to identify their mistakes and learn from self correction, peer correction and teacher correction. When they get the correct answer by checking it themselves, they will have a sense of accomplishment. Conversely, if they get the wrong answer, they can always redo or their peers can help them out. Comparing to doing tasksheets marked by the teacher, the teacher will give a big red cross on their mistakes and this can be intimidating to young pupils where they might lose interest in learning once they start to feel inferior and belittled. These activities not only allow pupils to have close interaction with the IWB but also with their classmates. The actitivities are able to promote peer learning where pupils share their knowledge among themselves in group work and this helps them to learn from each other. Moreover, the better ones can help the weaker ones to learn the concept through communication among themselves. Pupils do not feel shy asking help from peers compared to the teacher. Talking about games, the significance of IWB is that it can allow teachers to download games and save it as a flash file for pupils to play and subconsciously learn the intended input. Pupils do not feel stressed to receive input but learning it with fun and in a relax manner. Pupils not only can play the games but they are having physical contact with the IWB while playing the games. This may help pupils to learn better in memorization. Moreover, teacher will save a lot of time preparing boring task sheets for pupils to attempt on. Teachers can also have immediate feedback on pupils' knowledge regading the input given and with the information obtained, teacher will understand the strengths and weaknesses of their pupils. This will allow teacher to provide more input or change their teaching strategies so that to achieve optimum results in the teaching and learning process. All in all, implementing teaching and learning activities via IWB can truly benefit the pupils and most importantly it is capable to personalise and engage the pupils' learning in a condusive and supportive environment.
- 4. The below table shows the favourite fruits of pupils in class 5A. Construct a pictograph by using the table. Drag and drop the items into the correct boxes provided. Check your answers by removing the green box. represent 2 pupils ACTIVITY 1 Number of pupils Fruits 6 10 4 8 Apple Banana Strawberry Orange
- 5. Activity 1 User guide: 1) Teacher shows the pupils the table about the favourite fruits of the pupils in 5A. 2) Teacher asks pupils to verbally identify the fruits as well as the number. 3) Teacher elicits responses from the pupils about which is the most and least favourite among the pupils. 4) Teacher removes the screen shade. 5) Teacher tells pupils to complete the pictograph. 6) Teacher selects pupils randomly to drag and drop the fruits pictures in sequence according to the words from the table to the pictograph. 7) Each pupils is allowed to drag and drop 1 fruit picture. 8) After that, teacher asks pupils what is supposed to be done next. 9) Teacher asks pupils to identify the picture (smiley) to represent data. 10) Teacher has to ensure that all pupils understand what 1 unit of the picture represent by posing a question to them. 11) Teacher selects pupils randomly to drag and drop smiley from the infinite cloner smiley and place them appropriately in the pictograph. 12) After the pictograph is completed, teacher removes the big green rectangular box to check the answers. 13) Teacher asks pupils to reason how to obtain the correct answers which is by placing the correct amount of smiley which represents the amount the pupils that like to eat the particular fruit. 14) Pupils are asked to volunteer to tell the method of calculating and getting the correct amount.. 15) If there are wrong answers, pupils are asked to self-correct, if one fails to correct, then peer correction is implemented. Teacher's correction is the last resort to correct the errors. 16) Finally, teacher uses the screen shade to hide the table displayed above. 17) Teacher selects pupils randomly to verbally interpret the pictograph. Eg: There are 6 pupils who like to eat apples. Rationale: In this activity, firstly, pupils are tested on their understanding about how to analyze the table and also about the picture that represents the data and the unit that the picture represents in a pictograph. It is also able to test their vocabulary knowledge on fruits where they have to &quot;drag and drop&quot; the correct fruits picture that represents the correct amount of pupils since the fruits mentioned in the table are in words. Moreover, they need to have the basic multiplication and division mathematical skills in order to &quot;drag and drop&quot; the correct amount of &quot;smiley&quot; to construct the pictograph. This is an interactive activity as pupils can participate actively in completing the pictograph by &quot;drag and drop&quot; the smiley on the IWB as well as doing mental calculation that is able to stimulate their brains. They will be able to convert their interpretation of the table to a pictograph through logical and mathematical thinking. Pupils will be able to self correct their answers through the checking procedure which is by removing the green box. Pupils will be able to learn from their mistakes by teacher's and peer's help or self discovery.
- 6. Study the pictograph constructed. Answer the questions below by drag and drop the correct answer into the box provided. Then, show the important steps in the provided space below the questions. 1) Find the total number of pupils in 5A. 2) 12 pupils like to eat mangoes. How many must be drawn? ACTIVITY 2 represent 2 pupils 16 incorrect 28 correct 14 incorrect 24 incorrect 12 incorrect 6 correct
- 7. Study the pictograph constructed. Answer the questions below by drag and drop the correct answer into the box provided. Then, show the important steps in the provided space below the questions. 3) In class 5B, the number of pupils who like oranges is 3 times more than that of the number of pupils who likes oranges in class 5A. How many must be drawn? 4) The mass of oranges is 150g. The mass of strawberries is 105g. If the teacher decided to give those who like oranges 1 orange each and 1 strawberry each what is the total mass of oranges and strawberries the teacher have to buy? represent 2 pupils correct 12 24 incorrect incorrect 6 810g incorrect 0.9kg incorrect 1.62kg correct
- 8. Activity 2 User guide: 1) After producing the pictograph in activity 1, pupils proceed to answer some questions regarding the same pictograph. 2) Pupils are asked to work in pairs. 3) Only 1 question is shown each time they attempt the questions. Others are hidden by the screen shade. 3) After answering the question in their pairs, teacher will select a pupil randomly to answer the question on the smartboard. 4) The pupil is required to drag and drop the correct answer to the coloured box provided. 5) If the answer emerged to be incorrect, another pupil will be selected to answer the question. 6) Once the answer emerged to be correct, the pupil will have to show the important mathematical steps in order to obtain the answer in the space provided. 7) After clearly explaining about how to complete the 1st question, the class will proceed to the next question. Note: The teacher should walk around the class to facilitate the pupils to ensure that all pupils are engaged in working out the answers. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are not only tested on analyzing data from the pictograph, other topics such as multiplication and mass are covered in the questions. Data handling is the last topic of Year 4, therefore, pupils are expected to have acquired all skills of all topics learnt earlier and should be able to apply them in this data handling activity. This can also be identified as a revision activity for pupils. This activity carried out via the smartboard using the screen shade feature is able to allow all pupils to focus and attempt only 1 question at one time so that teacher is capable to manage and recognize their progress. If all questions are revealed to them at the same time, some might do them fast and the weaker ones might not be able to answer them in time. This will not be a successful activity as it does not cater to all learners' needs. The feature where answers can be recognized (correct / incorrect) in smartboard is very motivating and interesting to the learners. They will get immediate feedback from their attempt and stir them eagerly to drag the answer to the box to check their answers and this keeps them from trying. Besides that, working in pairs will ease the pupils' stress on attempting the questions as their partner can always help out each other in the problem solving session. Peer learning is incorporated.
- 9. As you use the pen to cut out 1 animal, put a &quot;/&quot; for each animal in the box provided. After that, count all the &quot;/&quot; to see how many chickens, ducks and rabbits are there in Yusof's farm. YUSOF'S FARM ACTIVITY 3A Animals Number of animals Fill in the table below with the correct number.
- 10. Activity 1A Activity 3A User guide: 1) Pupils are shown to the picture of Yusof's farm. 2) Teacher switches the page to full screen to enable pupils to attempt the activity easier and also to have a better view. 3) Teacher selects pupils randomly to come to the front to count the number of animals in the farm.Teacher should evenly distribute the chances among the pupils to interact with the smartboard by asking different pupils to perform different part of the task. 4) Pupils are asked to use the pen to draw a slash 1 animal and put a “ / ” in the box provided. 5) After finished drawing slashes to all the animals and putting correct amount of “ / ” in the box provided, the pupils are asked to count how many “/” are there for each type of animals. 6) Pupils are asked to fill up the table provided at the right. 7) Pupils are asked to tell the amount of different type of animals in Yusof’s farm together by looking at the table. Rationale: In this activity, pupils will be able to categorize things in order. They will learn how to count carefully. Moreover, they will know how a table is constructed and how it comes about. A real life situation is given to them so that they are able to relate data handling to the real world rather than looking data handling as a dull topic. As they draw slash and put “/” in the task, their hand eye coordination is developed. They will be so engaged in the activity where they do not want to miss out counting a certain animal. This kind of concept instilled in mind helps them to perform better in Mathematics as accuracy is always emphasized in this subject. Moreover, they are taught to learn how to do work systematically in the entire process of completing the activity.
- 11. ACTIVITY 3B The below table shows the number of animals in Yusof's farm. Constuct a bar graph using the table. Label the axes. Drag the bar vertically to show the correct data. Check your graph using the purple bar. Number of animals Animals check answers Animals Number of animals 10 20 5
- 12. Activity 3B User guide: 1) Teacher uses the table constructed in activity 1B to allow pupils to construct a bar graph. 2) Pupils are asked to convert the table into bar graph. 3) Firstly, teacher asks pupils to identify the vertical axe and horizontal axe by drag and drop the correct words in the red area. 4) Teacher asks a pupil randomly to label the number on the vertical axe. 5) Teacher then asks volunteers to construct each bar graph by draging the bar vertically until it reaches the level of its amount. 6) Teacher checks pupils’ bar graphs by dragging the purple bar near to the top of each bar. The exact height of each bar graph will emerge in white. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are given the idea on how to construct a bar graph using the data given in a table. It is to show relationships between the frequency of something gathered together to form a table and later interpreted in the form of bar graph. It tells the pupils that there are many ways to make known of a data. The main concern is to show accurate and clear data. This activity requires only little calculation which is to determine what should be labeled on the vertical axe. It is carried out to allow pupils to interpret the table constructed and test their ability to adapt a new way of showing the data through bar graph. This activity is to get pupils familiar with what a bar graph is and to read and understand data disclosed through it. Pupils are given a chance to construct bar graph using smartboard where the differences in colour of the bar graph is able to show the differences in amount of each category vividly compared to the black and white tasksheets. By using smartboard to do data handling is able to allow pupils to understand each steps of constructing a correct bar graph where the important steps are clearly shown in the teaching and learning process.
- 13. Study the bar graph constructed. Answer the questions below by drag and drop the circle to the correct answer. If the answer is correct, it will emerge. Then, show important steps in the provided space. ACTIVITY 4 1) What is the difference in the number of chicken and rabbits? 10 25 15 2) Cheng has the same number of animals in his farm as Yusof. Raju has twice the number of animals in his farm as Yusof. How many animals do Yusof, Cheng and Raju have altogether? 70 105 140 Number of animals in Yusof's farm Animals Ducks Chickens Rabbits 20 15 10 5
- 14. 3) If Yusof and Raju decided to keep their 5 animals in 1 cage, how many cages do Yusof and Raju need? 14 28 21 4) A chicken costs RM 12.30. A duck costs RM 23.50. A rabbit costs RM 28.80. This morning, Yusof sold all his chickens, half of his ducks and 3 rabbits in the market. How much money did he get? RM 507.50 RM 567.40 RM 449.90 Number of animals in Yusof's farm Animals Ducks Chickens Rabbits 20 15 10 5
- 15. Activity 4 User guide: 1) After producing the bar graph in activity 3, pupils proceed to answer some questions regarding the same bar graph. 2) Pupils are asked to work in pairs. 3) Only 1 question is shown each time they attempt the questions. Others are hidden by the screen shade. 3) After answering the question in their pairs, teacher will select a pupil randomly to answer the question on the smartboard. 4) The pupil is required to drag and drop the orange box to the answer. 5) If the answer does not emerge, it is the inccorect answer, another pupil will be selected to answer the question. 6) Once the answer emerges, it is correct, the pupil will have to show the important mathematical steps in order to obtain the answer in the space provided. 7) After clearly explaining about how to complete the 1st question, the class will proceed to the next question. Note: The teacher should walk around the class to facilitate the pupils to ensure that all pupils are engaged in working out the answers. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are not only tested on analyzing data from the bar graph, other topics such as subtraction, multiplication and money are covered in the questions. Data handling is the last topic of Year 4, therefore, pupils are expected to have acquired all skills of all topics learnt earlier and should be able to apply them in this data handling activity. This can also be identified as a revision activity for pupils. This activity carried out via the smartboard using the screen shade feature is able to allow all pupils to focus and attempt only 1 question at one time so that teacher is capable to manage and recognize their progress. If all questions are revealed to them at the same time, some might do them fast and the weaker ones might not be able to answer them in time. This will not be a successful activity as it does not cater to all learners' needs. The feature where answers can be recognized (correct / incorrect) in smartboard is very motivating and interesting to the learners. They will get immediate feedback from their attempt and stir them eagerly to drag the orange box to the answer to check their answers and this keeps them from trying. Pupils will feel at ease attempting the questions as they are working in pairs where they can always solve the problem together with their partner. Knowledge and skills can be shared between each other. Peer learning is incorporated.
- 16. ACTIVITY 5 The below pictograph shows the number of sweets sold at a store. Read the statement below carefully according to the pictograph. Put a to the true statement. Put a to the false statement. Check your answer by removing the sweet next to your answer. You are required to show the important steps. 1) 50 sweets were sold on Sunday. ( ) 2) 120 sweets were sold on Wednesday and Thursday. ( ) Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday represent 20 sweets
- 17. 3) The difference between the number of sweets sold on Sunday and Thursday is 60. ( ) 4) The amount of sweets sold from Sunday to Thursday was 180. ( ) Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday represent 20 sweets
- 18. 5) The fraction which represents the number of sweets sold on Wednesday over the total number of sweets is 3 9. ( ) 6) If each sweet costs RM 0.15. The amount of money the store gets from the sale of sweet on Monday and Tuesday is RM 21.00. ( ) Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday represent 20 sweets
- 19. Activity 5 User guide: 1) This activity is to be done in groups. 2) Teacher asks pupils to study the pictograph carefully by identifying the unit that represents each picture. 3) Question by question is displayed through the use of screen shade. 4) All the pupils have to work individually in their group first before getting the correct answer from the group. 5) If there are different answers obtained, pupils should discuss and check their answer so as to come to the final answer of the group. 6) After all the questions are identified to be either true of false, each group will send a representative to put a tick or cross in the bracket and later remove the &quot;sweet&quot; to check their answer. 7) If the answer is correct, they have to explain and show the important steps of getting the answer. 8) If the answer is incorrect, another group will have to give the correct answer by directly explaining why the statement is true or false by refering to the pictograph and showing relevant calculation in the provided space. 9) Pupils are always encouraged to prove their answer by asking all their classmates to focus on the data of the pictograph on the smartboard when they are explaining. They should point to the relevant data that shows the relationships and involved in the questions to show their understanding. 10) At the end of the activity, the teacher will ask each group to tell how many statements they have identified correctly. 11) Marks will be given and recorded on the manila card in the Mathematics corner of the classroom. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are tested on their understanding of analyzing a pictograph. They should be able to explain why the statement is true or false by refering to the data of the pictograph and showing relevant calculations. Pupils will be able to understand that data handling is not about reading the data on pictographs but to understanding the relationship between each data, comparing and contrasting data between data as well as the overall conclusion of the data shown. This activity also covers a wide range of mathematical skills including basic mathematics operations, fraction and money. Pupils have to work individually before obtaining answers from other group member is to ensure that every pupil participate in analyzing and calculating the data rather than being a passenger in the activity. This activity is carried out in groups so as to allow the weaker ones to learn from the better ones since it is a mixed ablility classroom. Pupils can share their best way of calculation to come to the answer among their group members. Marks achieved is recorded in every group activity is to motivate the pupils to compete with other and perform their best in class.
- 20. ACTIVITY 6 Based on the information given by the cashier of the National Zoo, help her to construct a bar graph that shows the number of visitors to the zoo in these 4 months. Remember to label the axes. &quot;In January, there were 50 children visitors and 150 adult visitors who visited our zoo. In February due to Hari Raya and Chinese New Year many people came to visit our zoo. The total amount of admission fees we got was RM 5000 as each ticket costs RM 5.00.However, in March, our business dropped a lot. Only RM 3000 was collected. In April, our business was a little more stable. The amount of visitors were the total amount of January and March. I hope you smart children will help me to create a correct bar graph that shows our business in these 4 months. Thank You!&quot; check answers Month Amount of visitors
- 21. Activity 6 User guide: 1) 1) Teacher asks pupils to read silently the passage shown carefully. It is about a conversation of a cashier of the zoo who is reporting about the business from January until April. 2) A problem is given to the pupils where they need to construct a bar graph according to the information given by the casheir. 3) Teacher asks pupils to read aloud the passage once and clarify their understanding if there are any questions posed or lack of understanding shown by the pupils. 4) Then, teacher will provide them 5-10 minutes to calculate the amount of visitors of January, February, March and April individually. 5) Teacher reminds them to write their calculation clearly. 6) Then pupils are asked to check their answers with their group members. 7) Finally, they have to come to a final answer. 8) Teacher will ask each representative from each group to construct the bar graph part by part as well as numbering the vertical axe. Pupils have to drag the coloured bar vertically to the same level where the amount is located on the vertical axe. 9) Calculation should be shown below each bar that is constructed. 10) The accuracy of the bar graph can be checked by using the green bar. The correct height of the bar will emerge beside the bar constructed when the green bar is placed near to the top of the bar. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are tested on thinking skills. They have to know what mathematical operations to be applied in order to get the amount of visitors. Not only they are tested on understanding but the correct application of mathematical concepts in order to construct the bar graph which is stated in the Bloom Taxonomy. This activity is considered a problem solving task where they are assigned to help the cashier to construct the bar graph. This provides them an &quot;imaginary&quot; real life task to be completed which challenges the pupils to work in a &quot;responsible&quot; situation. Each pupil is given the &quot;special role&quot; as they work individually to obtain the amount of visitors. The passage also provides them clues on how the bar graph will look like by giving them information that which month the business went up or went down.
- 22. Activity 7 Work in group. Choose one of your member's results in the final examination and record them according to the subjects mentioned in the bar graph. Construct the bar graph below that represents your member's results. Later, try to make as many correct interpretations as possible according to the graph constructed. The bar graph below shows the marks obtained by _____________ in this final examination. For example: Ali got 90 marks in English. Ali's B.Melayu is 40 marks more than his physical education marks. Marks obtained Subjects 20 40 60 80 100 English Mathematics B. Melayu Science Physical Education Arts
- 23. Activity 7 User guide: 1) Teacher tells them this is a game session. 2) Teacher divides them into 4 groups. 3) Teacher gets them ready with a paper and a pencil in hand to record one of their group member's results according to the subjects shown in the bar graph. 4) Teacher shows them the bar graph. 5) Teacher reads to them the instructions asking them to produce as many correct interpretations as possible according to the bar graph which represent their member's results. 6) Pupils are not allowed to copy what are given in the examples. They are expected to make new interpretations. 7) Teacher informs them that they are supposed to use their basic mathematics manipulation skills such as addition, subtraction, multipication, division and fractions to create more interpretations. 8) Pupils are given 15 minutes to discuss in groups and interpretations should be written on the piece of paper provided. 9) Pupils are asked to send 2 representatives from each group to construct their bar graph which represents their member's results and share their interpretations found by pointing out the data displayed on the bar graph as well as telling / showing the calculations being done (if it is complicated). 10) The group that produces the most and correct interpretations through analyzing the bar graph will be considered the winner of the game. 11) A small reward will be given to each group member. Rationale: In this activity, pupils are tested on the ability to analyze the bar graph not just on the surface level but more in depth. They need to apply the mathematical concepts learnt earlier in order to make more correct interpretations. They are tested on their pace and accuracy in mathematics and logical thinking simultaneously. This activity actually caters to the pupils' background knowledge where they are familiar to results, scores, marks and subjects taken in the final examination. They are able to relate themselves directly to the task. Moreover, the spirit of cooperation is enhanced. This also tests the pupils on how to divide their work systematically while working in groups. Who is in charged of writing, counting, and checking the interpretations. Pupils not only interacting with the smartboard by getting information but also among their peers. They learn to agree and share interpretations shared by each other. Their communication skill is developed. By using the smartboard, pupils can easily explain their interpretations clearly in front of the class by pointing of data as well as showing important steps of calculation. Without the use of smartboard, pupils can only result in looking at the black and white tasksheet with small print to carry out the game which might be dull and not so practical to young learners. Moreover, mistakes can be pointed out more conveniently by asking all pupils to refer to the smartboard where they could see and figure out data clearly and vividly without straining their eyes. In this game, the accuracy and fluency of English in making interpretations is not emphasized, as the target group is still young learners who might not be in very high proficiency in the language. If they are able to show clear understanding regarding the bar graph, they are considered to have master the skills of data analysing.
- 24. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! CLICK HERE IF YOU WANT TO HAVE FUN
- 25. ACTIVITY 8
- 26. Activity 8 User guide: 1) Teacher tells pupils that they will have lots of practice dealing with data handling. 2) Teacher allow 1 pupil to click start the practice. 3) Teacher can allow all the pupils to participate in the practice as there are 7 topics covered including collecting data, constructing pictographs and bar graphs. 4) As pupils try doing the practice, there will be correct commments given when they did the right answer. If there are mistakes, the mistakes will be make known and changes are required. Rationale: This is actually an online mathematics game on data handling. Since there are so many questions in 1 practice, every pupil will be given a chance or two to interact with the IWB. They will have a better grasp on data handling as practice makes perfect which is the main learning aim of the game. Moreover, there are comments given after each topic of practice where pupils will be praised &quot;excellent&quot; of their well done attempt. They will be more motivated to try out the next practice and their attention span can be prolonged. In addition, if there are mistakes made, they will not be able to proceed to the next topic. They are given &quot;clue&quot; or &quot;hint&quot; at which part of the practice they have made a mistake and changes are required. Pupils will be able to self correct and learn from their mistakes.Pupils will not feel intimidated with their mistakes as they are given the chance to re-do their answer until it turns out right.
- 27. Merrill, M. D. (In Press). First principles of instruction: a synthesis. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. R. A. Reiser and J. V. Dempsey. Columbus: Ohio, Merrill Prentice Hall. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and Society (2nd ed.). New York. Norton. References: Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and Society. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press Piaget, J. (1952b). The Origins of intellignece in children. New York: International University Press. 7 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/maths/activites/interpretingdata.shtml/
- 28. PREPARED BY: MOO YONG YUN MUN

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