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Your Are Your Mobile Phone
 

Your Are Your Mobile Phone

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    Your Are Your Mobile Phone Your Are Your Mobile Phone Presentation Transcript

    • Your Are Your Mobile Phone Research Paper Presentation – DESC9179 Kim Mo 198658632
    • Presentation Overview
      • Theme: Pervasive Computing
        • Mobile Computing
        • Urban Computing
        • Location Based Services
        • Mobile Sensor Networks
        • Payment and Authentication
      • Introduction
        • Mobile phone as platform for personal mobile computing
        • Current Technology and Trends
        • Into the Future
    • Research Papers
      • To be adopted as personal mobile devices, mobile phones must provide location based services, sense the environment to support LBS’s and be able to pay for them. The following papers research solutions to solve problems in each of these areas.
      • Anonymous Usage of Location-Based Services Through Spatial and Temporal Cloaking
        • Source: Int’l Conf. on Mobile Systems, Applications & Services (2003)
        • Authors: Marco Gruteser, Dirk Grunwald
        • Referenced 36 sources, cited by 250 as a reference
      • People–Centric Urban Sensing
        • Source: The 2 nd Annual Int’l Wireless Internet Conference (2006)
        • Authors: Andrew T Campbell, Shane B Eisenman, Nicholas D Lane, Emiliano Miluzzo, Ronald A Peterson
        • Referenced 46 sources, cited by 22 as a reference
      • Authentication and Payment in Future Mobile Systems
        • Source: Journal of Computer Security, Vol 8, Nos 2-3/2000
        • Authors: G ü nther Horn, Bart Preneel
        • Referenced 31 sources, cited by 117 as a reference
    • You Are Your Mobile Phone
      • Mobile Phone has become your proxy:
      • Is at the same location as you
      • Travels with you at the same velocity and feels the same force
      • Experiences the same environment – temperature, sounds and pollution levels
      • Acts as your personal address node thanks to mobile number portability
      • Projects your personality, eg customising ringtones
    • Current Technology & Trends
      • 3G network – higher speed and broader bandwidth
      • Adopted and compatible in most countries
      • Built-in GPS for positioning
      • Non-Voice functions – multi-media communications, emails, calendars, address books, camera
      • Location-based services, eg NAVITIME in Japan
      • Contact-Less payments using Near Field Communications (NFC) – Tokyo subway, California highway tolls
      • Voice communications will become a minor function
    • Into the Future
      • Personal Mobile Device
      • Access Location-Based Services
        • Just-In-Time Service – services when you want them where you want them
        • Better allocation of resources
        • Match supply and demand
        • Location-based dating
        • Multi-target applications, ie interrelating positions of several targets, eg gaming, traffic / fleet management
      • Mobile sensing node in an urban wireless sensor network
        • Real-time data covering a large area where fixed sensing devices are impractical and expensive
      • Electronic wallet
        • Cashless, contact-less and paperless secured financial transactions – payments for all goods and services, person to person transfers
    • Are We There Yet?
      • Not Yet! We still have issues that need to be overcome:
      • Accuracy and privacy of positioning for location-based services
      • Security and authentication of mobile transactions
      • Developing a large scale sensor network using heterogeneous sensing devices and supporting wide variety of applications, eg business, healthcare, entertainment, recreation, law enforcement
      • The following papers suggest ways to solve these problems
    • Issues in Mobile Positioning
      • Issues:
      • GPS positioning accurate to 10m and only works outdoors having line of sight of min. 4 GPS satellites
      • Variety of heterogeneous wireless interfaces for indoor use, eg Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Cell Tower Positioning
      • Current positioning systems are managed by telcos, location data not managed by users
        • Users have no choice in determining visibility of positioning data
      • Location data can be referenced and location subject re-identified using spatial, temporal or public information
      •  Need user-centric, terminal based positioning systems
        • User-owned location data
        • Users determine visibility and granularity of positioning data
    • Paper 1
      • Anonymous Usage of Location-Based Services Through Spatial and Temporal Cloaking
        • Source: Int’l Conf. on Mobile Systems, Applications & Services (2003)
        • Authors: Marco Gruteser, Dirk Grunwald
        • Referenced 36 sources, cited by 250 as a reference
      • Provisioning of LBS
      • Location information source, eg GPS receiver
      • Wireless network, eg 3G
      • Location server
      • Location-based servers
      • Assumption
      • An adversary seeking to violate anonymity is able to intercept wireless and wireless message
    • Paper 1 (cont’d)
      • Goal
      • Prevent accumulation of identifiable location information in service provider systems
      • Location data privacy issues addressed
      • Restricted Space Identification – person known to own or reside at a location, data sent from the location can be linked to the person
      • Observation Identification – person observed at a location, data sent from the location can be linked to the person
      • Location Tracking – person located at a location can be traced to previous or future locations via location updates
      • Proposed Solution
      • Adaptive-Interval Cloaking Algorithm – decrease the accuracy of revealed spatial data so that enough subjects in habit the area to satisfy anonymity constraints to specified degrees of anonymity
      • Spatial Cloaking / Temporal Cloaking
    • Paper 1 (cont’d)
      • Related Work
      • IETF Geopriv working group designing protocols and APIs that enable devices to communicate location data in a confidential and integrity-preserving manner to a location server
      • Mist routing project addresses routing messages to a subject’s location while keeping the location private from routers and senders
      • Cricket system places location sensors on mobile devices (terminal-based positioning) as opposed to building infrastructure
        • location data not disclosed during positioning and subjects can choose who to disclose information to
      • Important Contributions
      • A simple, scalable algorithm that can be used to de-identify a location subject to a specified degree of anonymity
      • Solution essential in provisioning of large scale, cost effective LBS’s
      • Authors evaluated their algorithm using automotive traffic simulation as a testbed
    • Paper 2
      • People-Centric Urban Sensing
        • Source: The 2 nd Annual Int’l Wireless Internet Conference (2006)
        • Authors: Andrew T Campbell, Shane B Eisenman, Nicholas D Lane, Emiliano Miluzzo, Ronald A Peterson
        • Referenced 46 sources, cited by 22 as a reference
      • Characteristics of an People-Centric Urban Sensor Network
      • Uncontrolled mobility across coverage area
      • Scalable to a large metropolitan area
      • Diversity of hardware platforms, application & device heterogeneity
      • Data fidelity in terms of data stream continuity and data collection frequency
      • Multi-modal data related to people-to-people and people-to-environment interactions
      • Issues
      • Existing sensor networks serve a specific purpose and application
      • They are not scalable and costly to implement in a large scale (costs of fixed sensors and data transmission)
    • Paper 2 (cont’d)
      • Design Principles
      • Network Symbiosis – should leverage existing traditional networking infrastructure and services, eg physical infrastructure of power, wired and wireless communications
      • Asymmetric Design – should exploit resource asymmetry between sensor nodes by pushing computational complexity and energy burden to more capable nodes
      • Localised Interaction – should possess ability to communicate with other network elements in the vicinity
      • Operating Modes
      • Opportunistic Sensing – ability to support an application based on sensor mobility characteristics, ie an appropriate application is loaded to a particular node that has the right sensing device moving within the target area during the window of interest
      • Opportunistic Delegation – delegation of sensing task by a fixed node to a mobile node to extend its effective range
      • Opportunistic Tasking and Collection – tasking a mobile node collect data when it moves within range of a target area
    • Paper 2 (cont’d)
      • Important Contributions
      • Outlines a physical and software architecture for a people-centric urban sensor network that has characteristics not well supported by existing application-specific networks
      • Scalable and cost effective network that leverages mobility of sensing nodes
      • Proposes a platform for a variety of applications to be run concurrently serving different needs and requirements
    • Paper 3
      • Authentication and Payment in Future Mobile Systems
        • Source: Journal of Computer Security, Vol 8, Nos 2-3/2000
        • Authors: G ü nther Horn, Bart Preneel
        • Referenced 31 sources, cited by 117 as a reference
      • Mobile System Security Requirements
      • Confidentiality on the air interface
      • Anonymity and authentication of user
      • Authentication of the network operated by the merchant
      • User protection against incorrect bills and user charages
      • Goals
      • A payment in the name of a payer can be made only by the payer
      • The amount paid is exactly what the payer has specified
      • Only the payee specified can receive the payment
      • The payer cannot deny having made a verified payment
      • The payee can be certain of being credited for verified payments by the broker
      • The broker and the payer can verify the correctness of payment
    • Paper 3 (cont’d)
      • Important Contributions
      • Developed a protocol for payment and authentication on mobile systems that have different characteristics than wired systems, ie limited computation capabilities and bandwidth on the user side