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  1. 1. Tissues <ul><li>Group of similar cells in structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Four different types of tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues align things to cover and protect them </li></ul>Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous Credits
  2. 2. Epithelial <ul><li>Cellularity, special contacts, polarity, supported by connective tissue, avascular but innervated, regenerative </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by number of layers-simple or stratified </li></ul><ul><li>The shape- squamous, cuboidal, or columnar </li></ul>Glandular Simple Stratified Home
  3. 3. Glandular <ul><li>One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by sight of product released(endocrine or exocrine) and relative number of cells forming the gland (unicellular or multi-cellular) </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of secretion are merocrine or holocrine </li></ul>Epithelial Home
  4. 4. Simple Pseudostratified Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Epithelial Home <ul><li>Usually a single layer </li></ul><ul><li>Covering and lining epithelia </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pseudostratified Simple Epithelial Home <ul><li>Falsely layered </li></ul><ul><li>Single layer of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei seen at different layers </li></ul><ul><li>Function in secretion and propulsion of mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Found in male sperm-carrying ducts and trachea </li></ul>
  6. 6. Squamous Simple Epithelial Home <ul><li>Thin and flat </li></ul><ul><li>Disc shaped nuclei and spare cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in diffusion and filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Present in kidney tubes, ducts and secreting portions of small glands and ovary surface </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cuboidal Simple Epithelial Home <ul><li>Cube-like cells with large spherical central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Function in secretion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Present in kidney tubes, ducts and secreting portions of small glands and, ovary surface </li></ul>
  8. 8. Columnar Simple Epithelial Home <ul><li>Tall cells with oval nuclei; many contain cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Function in absorption and secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of lines ciliated, others aren’t </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia help more substances through internal passageways </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stratified Transitional Squamous Cuboidal/Columnar Epithelial Home <ul><li>Many layers </li></ul><ul><li>Covering and lining epithelia </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transitional Stratified Epithelial Home <ul><li>Basal cells are cuboidal, surface layers are dome shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Stretches to permit the distention of the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra </li></ul>
  11. 11. Squamous Stratified Epithelial Home <ul><li>Thick membrane (many layers) </li></ul><ul><li>Function in protection of underlying areas subjected to abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the external part of the skin’s epidermis, and linings of the esophagus, mouth and vagina </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cuboidal/Columnar Stratified Epithelial Home <ul><li>Quite rare in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Found in some sweat and mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Typically two thick cell layers (columnar) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited distribution in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the pharynx, male urethra, and some glandular ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Also occurs at transition areas between two other types of epithelia </li></ul>
  13. 13. Connective Cartilage Bone Blood Home <ul><li>Found throughout the body; mostly in primary tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood </li></ul><ul><li>Functions are binding, support, insulation, and transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Nonliving extracellular matrix, consisting of ground substance and fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Structural cells are the matrix, fibers and cells </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage Connective Home <ul><li>Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Good examples are the nose, ears, and knees </li></ul><ul><li>Protects bones and helps form </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hyaline Cartilage Connective Home <ul><li>Firm matrix with imperceptible network of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Supports, reinforces, cushions, and resists compression </li></ul><ul><li>Forms costal cartilage (nose) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in embryonic skeleton, the end of the long bones, nose, trachea, and larynx </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elastic Cartilage Connective Home <ul><li>Similar to hyaline cartilage but with more elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains shape and structure while allowing flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Supports external ear (pinna) and the epiglottis </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fibrocartilage Cartilage Connective Home <ul><li>Matrix similar to hyaline and cartilage but less firm with thick collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides tensile strength and absorbs compression shock </li></ul><ul><li>Found in intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis, and in discs of the knee joint </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bone Proper Dense Connective Home <ul><li>Hard, calcified matrix with collagen fibers found in bone </li></ul><ul><li>Supports, protects and provides levers for muscular protection </li></ul><ul><li>Stores calcium, mineral and fat </li></ul>
  19. 19. Proper Loose Areolar Adipose Reticular Bone Connective Home <ul><li>Loose or dense </li></ul><ul><li>Areolar, adipose and reticular </li></ul><ul><li>Regular, irregular, and elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Loose Bone Connective Home <ul><li>Areolar, adipose and reticular </li></ul><ul><li>Thick pink collagen or thin purple elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Fat storage </li></ul>
  21. 21. Areolar Loose Connective Home <ul><li>Considered the prototype of the connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>All other connective tissues are based off of the structure of the areolar connective tissues </li></ul>
  22. 22. Adipose Loose Connective Home <ul><li>Fat tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix similar to areolar tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves food stores, supports, and protects </li></ul><ul><li>Found under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and in breasts </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reticular Loose Connective Home <ul><li>Loose ground substance with reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular cells lie in a fiber network </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a soft internal skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dense Regular Irregular Elastic Proper Connective Home <ul><li>Irregular and regular </li></ul><ul><li>Contains elastic fibers and collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Major cell types is fibroblasts </li></ul>
  25. 25. Regular <ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Found in tendons </li></ul>Dense Connective Home
  26. 26. Irregular <ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Sub mucosa of the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous organ capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Found in dermis </li></ul>Dense Connective Home
  27. 27. Elastic <ul><li>Dense fibrous tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in regular and irregular connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Combines strength with elasticity </li></ul>Dense Connective Home
  28. 28. Blood <ul><li>Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma) </li></ul><ul><li>Contained with blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in the transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul>Connective Home
  29. 29. Muscle <ul><li>Cardiac, skeletal, smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Produces most types of body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary or involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>The heart is a good example </li></ul>Voluntary Involuntary Home
  30. 30. Voluntary <ul><li>Movement that is initiated and controlled by will </li></ul>Skeletal Muscle Home
  31. 31. Skeletal <ul><li>Form the flesh of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to the skeleton </li></ul>Muscle Home
  32. 32. Involuntary <ul><li>Movement that happens on its own or as a reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious movement </li></ul>Smooth Cardiac Muscle Home
  33. 33. Smooth <ul><li>Normally two layers that run perpendicular to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly found in the walls of hallow organs </li></ul><ul><li>Propels substances along internal passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Sheets of spindle-shaped cells arranged closely with central nuclei that have no striations </li></ul>Muscle Home
  34. 34. Cardiac <ul><li>Found only in the walls of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Propels blood into the circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Branching, striated, uninucleate cells interlocking at intercalated discs </li></ul>Muscle Home
  35. 35. Nervous <ul><li>Most associated with nervous system functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Neuralgia </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons </li></ul>Neurons Home
  36. 36. Neurons <ul><li>Branched neurons with long cellular processes and support cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves </li></ul>Nervous Home
  37. 37. Credits <ul><li>Slides and sound done by Kaitlyn Patterson </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures by Kaitlyn Patterson and Lydia Heter </li></ul><ul><li>Credits sound by Linkin Park </li></ul><ul><li>Glandular slide picture-http://www.kumc.edu/instruction /medicine/ anatomy/histoweb/female/small/Fem22s.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular slide picture-http://www.udel.edu/biology/Wags/histopage/ colorpage/cct/cctrct.GIF </li></ul><ul><li>Dense slide picture-http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/cm1504/ 15lab42006/DensRegularCT.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Regular slide picture-http://www3.umdnj.edu/histsweb/lab3/images/ fdenseregularelastic.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular slide picture-http://www3.umdnj.edu/histsweb/lab3/ images/fdenseirregular.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary slide picture-http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy /brightfieldgallery/images/mammalcardiacmusclesmall.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal slide picture-http://www.microscopyu.com/galleries/fluorescence/ ratskeletalmuscle/images/ratskeletalmusclelarge.jpgInvoluntary slide picture-http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/ smmusc.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous slide picture-http://washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/schaefer_ w/TISSUES/nervous_tissue1.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons slide picture-http://www.rndsystems.com/images/ihc/c_ nt4ctx _ bg.jpg </li></ul>Home Photo by: Sarah Patterson