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  • 1. Unit #5 Africa
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Huge continent
    • 1/5 of the total landmass of the Earth
    • Dominated by extremes – huge deserts and dense jungles
    • Longest River – the Nile
    • Great Rift Valley – center of original human activity
  • 4.
    • Arab Africa
      • area north of the Sahara
      • Mostly Muslim today – strong ties to the Middle East
      • Small strip of land for development along the Med Sea
    • Sahara Desert
      • largest desert in the world
      • Separates black Africa from Arab Africa
      • Largely impenetrable, except for area around the Nile River
    • West Africa
      • largely grasslands – best farming on the continent
      • Some jungle areas – especially south of the Equator
      • Heavily populated region
      • Long legacy of slavery and the slave trade
  • 5.
    • Great Rift Valley
      • 4000 mile long rip in the land where the continents pulled apart millions of years ago
      • Includes the Red Sea and most of Africa’s major lakes
      • Area where first pre-humans appeared (Olduvai Gorge) – oldest fossils may be 3.5 million years old
    • East Africa
      • Stretches from Ethiopia to South Africa
      • Strong ties to the east (India and Indonesia) through trade
      • Dominated by the Great Rift Valley
    • Central and South Africa
      • Flat grasslands and deserts on a plateau
      • Heavy diamond mines in the region
      • Vast mineral resources (gold, silver, copper and uranium)
      • Legacy of legalized segregation (Apartheid) in South Africa and brutal colonization by European powers in other parts of the region
  • 6.
    • Nile river
      • longest in the world (over 4000 miles)
      • Runs from the mountains of Ethiopia north to the Mediterranean Sea
      • Very fertile delta – some settlements along the Nile may be as old as 6000 years
      • River cuts through the boundary between Black Africa and Arab Africa
    • Congo River
      • Over 2750 miles long
      • Drains the Congo Basin: an area of dense jungles and rainforest
      • Not fully navigable due to large waterfalls and intense current
      • No delta: current actually flows out to sea – very little agricultural development
  • 7.
    • Most of Africa supports only subsistence farming (farming that only supports the nutritional needs of the farmer and his family with nothing left to sell)
    • Geographic factors such as climate and soil limit the ability of some regions in Africa to support wide scale agriculture
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Egypt and Nubia
      • settlements along the Nile may be 5000+ years old
      • Carved out an empire by about 2500 BC (multiple nations – river cuts across the line between Black Africa and Arab Africa)
      • Legacy of this volatile relationship can be seen in the Sudan today
    • Bantu Migrations
      • About 4000 BC: black Africans from what is today Nigeria begin to filter down throughout the continent
      • Today most of Black Africa is populated by people who are ethnically and linguistically related, yet are members of hundreds of different African tribes
  • 10.  
  • 11.
      • Attraction as a religion of salvation after 650 AD
      • Berber traders crossed the Sahara Desert and into West Africa
      • Estimates of 25% conversion by 1500
      • Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library
    Mosque in Timbuktu
  • 12.
    • Powerful west African kingdom in the bight of Africa – unknown to Europeans until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 1450s
    • Specialized in three major trading items
      • Salt: used to preserve meat and milk
      • Gold: Ghana still produces vast amounts of gold
      • Slaves: simply another commodity in all ancient societies – slave trade was in effect across the Sahara and into the Islamic world for hundreds of years before the Portuguese arrive
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • Portugal took the lead in the slave trade
    • Most slaves went to work in the New World on Sugar plantations
    • Europeans tried to enslave the American Indians first, but 90% died within the first 100 years of colonization – mostly from smallpox
    • Africans had been exposed to the same diseases as Europeans and thus were largely immune to smallpox
  • 15. European Imperialism In Africa after 1880
  • 16. Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
  • 17. Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism “ White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism
  • 18. Africa in 1880
  • 19.
    • Called by chancellor Bismarck of Germany to settle European issues regarding Africa
    • Major European powers divided Africa among themselves – most of the modern boundaries were actually drawn by the Europeans without regard to tribal loyalties and hatreds
    • Africans were seen as savages – not worthy of
    • French and British got the most square miles, but much of this area was either already under French or British control, or was in the Sahara desert
    • Only Liberia left alone (it was seen as a US protectorate – established in 1817 by American abolitionists)
    • Ethiopia will remain independent – they defeat the Italian army in 1896 – Italians will eventually take Ethiopia in 1935
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • “ scientific” notion that all modern species evolved from lower life forms
    • Darwin himself never discussed humans, but others took his work on evolution and tried to link humans to apes
    • Black Africans were lower than white Europeans
    Social Darwinism
  • 23.
    • Poem written by British writer Kipling in 1899 that called on America to bring civilization to the “savages” of the third world
    • Very paternalistic
    • Kipling saw non-whites as lacking in sophistication
    • Call for the expansion of Christianity to save souls as well – call will be heeded by missionaries around the world
    The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
  • 24. The “White Man’s Burden”?
  • 25. Punishing “Lazy” Workers
  • 26.
    • Economic
      • Cash Crop economies
      • Money Economies
    • Infrastructure
      • Roads, railroads and ports were built
      • Communication improved
      • Sewers
    • Education
      • European style schools taught Africans Western ideals
      • European languages taught Africans a common language
      • Africans w/ European Ed. Became the leaders of independence movements
  • 27.
    • African people began to reject European culture
    • Africans tried to move toward the unity of African people and
    • The celebration of African culture
  • 28.
    • European countries used African troops to help them fight the war
    • Africans believed if they were good enough to fight—they should also have a say in their own government
    • Africans provided resources for the war effort as well, showing that they could be useful to themselves
  • 29.
    • Africans saw British and French lose battles
    • Europeans were no longer seen as invincible
    • Some military losses came at the hands of the Japanese—a non-European power
    • WWII devastated the economies of imperialist powers
    • They were no longer strong enough to maintain their empires
  • 30.
    • End of WWII saw the beginning of the UN
    • The UN called for self-rule by all nations
    • This increased the desire of Africans for freedom and independence
  • 31.
    • Peaceful
      • Economic sanctions – boycott and strike
      • Negotiated transition of power—from Europeans to Africans
    • Violent
      • War for independence
      • Guerrilla warfare
  • 32.
    • Tribalism Vs. Nationalism
    • Tribes within African countries fight each other for control
    • Single Party Rule
    • A strong leader would emerge and ban other parties
    • Often the military would seize power in a coup d’etat
    • This led to tyranny
  • 33.
    • White colonizers still held a majority of the businesses and land
    • Land redistribution called for taking the land from the land owners
    • Africans will distribute the land equally
    • Socialism – Gov’t controls some of the economic resources
    • Ideally the gov’t distributes those resources equally
    • Gov’t takes away power of big business
  • 34.
    • America and Russia tried to influence the independence movements in Africa
    • Russians preferred socialist governments
    • America preferred anything BUT socialist gov’ts
  • 35.
    • Over 60 countries – mostly in black Africa
    • Tremendous growth and potential – especially in Black Africa
    • Rapid industrialization – serious growing pains – terrible poverty
    • Ethnic, religious and tribal issues have led to terrible bloodshed over the years
    • AIDS – ravaging the continent – some countries have up to 1/3 of the population infected with the HIV virus