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Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
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Unit #1 Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography

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Global Studies Unit #1

Global Studies Unit #1

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    • 1. Global Studies Unit #1 Foundations, Tools and Concepts
    • 2. What is Global Studies? Why do students have to take it? <ul><li>The study of a globe? </li></ul><ul><li>A class for freshmen? </li></ul><ul><li>A boring class with a boring textbook? </li></ul><ul><li>Something STM students have to take so that Coach Flo has a job? </li></ul><ul><li>I have no idea…….. Why is he asking me this? Doesn’t he already know? </li></ul>
    • 3. Global Studies – A Working Definition <ul><li>Global Studies is an in depth study of major regions around the globe that uses geography, history and current events to help students gain a basic understanding of those regions </li></ul><ul><li>Students are able to see how each region and / or country is similar to others </li></ul><ul><li>Students are able to see how each region and / or country is unique to itself </li></ul>
    • 4. Our Star: the Sun <ul><li>The Sun provides light and the energy needed for life on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth is 93 Million miles (150 million KM) away from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>It takes approximately 8 minutes for sunlight to reach Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth travels around the sun in an oval shaped orbit </li></ul>
    • 5. Revolutions, Rotations and Seasons <ul><li>Revolution – one orbit around the sun (365 ¼ days) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation – one complete turn of the earth on its axis (24 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons – caused by the tilt of the Earth and amount of sunlight different parts of the globe receive at different times of the year </li></ul>
    • 6. Using Globes and Maps <ul><li>Globes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the world in three dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the oceans, seas and continents much as they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only difference would be the scale, or size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem – can not be both small enough to use and detailed enough to be useful </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Using Globes and Maps <ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for showing details – small pieces can be examined in great detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem – the Earth is round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion is a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator Projection Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in the 16 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ stretches” everything above 70 degrees – makes Greenland huge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practically unusable for true distances in northern and southern polar areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 8. Longitude and Latitude <ul><li>Longitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from north to south (from pole to pole) </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from east to west </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equator – latitude line exactly halfway between the north and south poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Cancer – latitude line in the Northern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on June 21/22 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Capricorn – latitude line in the Southern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on Dec 21/22 </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. The Earth Third Rock from the Sun Physical Geography
    • 10. Inside the Earth – Third Rock from the Sun <ul><li>The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Core – solid iron and nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel (contains the basis for our magnetic field – that protects us from most forms of solar radiation) </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle – semisoft melted rock </li></ul><ul><li>Crust – thin cooled skin that “floats” on the mantle – contains cracks and moves </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of the crust causes earthquakes and volcanoes </li></ul>
    • 11. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>The Earth’s crust is broken into plates </li></ul><ul><li>The plates move along the flowing mantle in different directions </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure between the plates builds up until it is released by an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Ring of Fire – hundreds of volcanoes around the Pacific Rim where the Pacific plate interacts with other plates </li></ul>
    • 12. Air and Water – Necessary for Life on Earth <ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained with the Earth’s atmosphere – a layer of gasses that surround the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually composed of many different types of gasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen – about 78% (essential for development of proteins) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen – about 21% (essential for respiration) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others – about 1% combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% of the water on Earth is found in the Ocean – it’s salty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly found in the polar caps and glaciers (huge ice sheets found on mountains, Antarctica and Greenland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great deal is underground – sometimes miles deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very little (0.3%) is at the surface (mostly lakes) and therefore useable by living organisms – very important to conserve and keep clean what we have </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 13. Water Cycle
    • 14. Types of Natural Resources found on Earth <ul><li>Recyclable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle naturally through the earth itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can refer to items that can be reused without replacing the resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources that can be replaced by man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood – trees can be replanted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel and ethanol – crops can be replanted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not be replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to conserve and use wisely -- they’re no longer being created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil, natural gas, coal, minerals </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Climate vs. Weather <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term average weather in any one place or region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the climate in Jamaica is tropical” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely affected by wind patterns, water currents and major landforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes take place over years or even millennia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s 90 degrees today” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by the movement of storms around the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes rapidly over a few days </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Broad Types of Climate on Earth <ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low latitudes around the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally hot, wet and sunny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain forests dominate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different places around the Earth – generally on the opposite side of mountain ranges from wind flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little to rain with sandy soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparse to no vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the middle latitudes (like Connecticut) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures and rainfall are generally moderate enough every year to promote agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers and bitterly cold winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally drier than moderate climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large grasslands in some areas and forests in others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in high latitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold all year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little life found in these regions </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air rises – so air in the tropics rises and is carried towards the polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air in the polar regions sinks to the surface and flows towards the tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air – can not hold much water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm air – can hold more water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind happens when the air flows from the areas where it’s sinking to areas where it’s rising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s rotation helps drive wind direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm water is lighter than cold, dense water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in tropical regions flows slowly towards the polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water in the polar regions sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south towards the tropical regions, where the cycle begins all over </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current
    • 19. Who lives on the Rock? The Story behind Earth’s Human and Cultural Geography
    • 20. Population of the Earth <ul><li>Now at 6.6 billion (United Nations Study – June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing at a rate of about 75 million per year </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas experiencing negative or stagnant growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central and Eastern Europe (due to low birth rates and high rates of emigration to other areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some regions in Africa (due to the AIDS epidemic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe (declining birth rates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some areas experiencing moderate to high growth rates (declining death rates, high birth rates and / or high immigration rates – often coupled with better medicine, industrialization and job growth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States (now 3 rd largest country in the world with a summer 2007 estimate of just over 300 million people) </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. India and China – Huge population centers <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest population in the world – 1.3 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely stable with a small amount of growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist government has a “One Child Policy” which attempts to curb growth, especially among urban citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest population in the world – 1.2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big rate of growth (almost 25% since 1991), due largely to industrialization, better medicine and high birth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projected to surpass China in the next 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together these two countries have approx. 2.3 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>That’s about 1/3 of the world’s population </li></ul><ul><li>combine that with the 235 million from Indonesia – the world’s 4 th largest country, and it means that Asia’s “big 3” have almost 4 billion people (remember – the world itself has about 6.6 billion) </li></ul>
    • 22. Global Urbanization and Overcrowding of Cities <ul><li>As the overall population has expanded, so has the growth of cities around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization and Modernization have driven people off the farms </li></ul><ul><li>Problem – overcrowding and extreme poverty has forced people into slums </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl is another issue, as is a lack of suitable infrastructure and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Picture is of a slum in Jakarta, Indonesia after a heavy rainstorm </li></ul>
    • 23. Major Religions of the World <ul><li>Western (Judeo-based) Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism (15-18 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity (2.1 billion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam (1.3 billion – also the fastest growing religion) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern (philosophical) Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism (900 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism (400 million) </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Major Economic Systems <ul><li>Traditional Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on local customs and laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often involves trading or bartering of some kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest form of economy – impractical in the large scale economies of the modern age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Economy (Capitalism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by private ownership of industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices and availability of products are based on supply and demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High supply + low demand = lower prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low supply + high demand = higher prices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command Economy (Socialism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most economies are a mix of command and market. It just depends how far a country swings to either side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA – mostly capitalism, but some socialism (welfare and minimum wage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy – High amount of capitalism, but nationalized industries such as healthcare, telephone company, airlines and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China – Socialism, but with some private ownership – moving towards capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea – Hard line Socialism -- resisting capitalism </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Major forms of government around the world <ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old form of government not seen much in the modern world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noble families -- rule generally passes from father to son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct – citizens vote on laws – mostly seen today in small communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect – citizens vote for representatives – reps vote on laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True democracy (rule by the people) is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives (mostly elected, but sometimes appointed) vote on the laws for the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most countries today are republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USA – US Congress and the President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China – National People’s Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where a person rules through fear and/ or force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly happens when a military general takes over in a coup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can happen in a republic if the dictator controls the representative body </li></ul></ul>

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