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Food Wq 2

Food Wq 2






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    Food Wq 2 Food Wq 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Ziad Khaled
      Food Insecurity Around the World
    •  Counting the Hungry Trends in the Developing Worlds
      The (WFS) stands for world food summit and it has been created in 1996
      The (MDG) stands for Millennium Development Goals
      There are 854 million undernourished people worldwide
      820 million are from the developing world; 25 million are from the transition countries and 9 million are from the industrialized countries
      The WFS’s goal is to half the number of undernourished people by the year 2015
      The MDG’s goal is to stop the prevalence of undernourishment
      Since 1996 to 2003 the number of undernourished people has only decreased by 3 million
      In order to achieve the WFS’s target the number of undernourished people have to decrease 31 million people per year
    • Regional Trends in Undernourishment
      Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean have seen a reduction in the number and prevalence of undernourished people since the WFS’s baseline period (1992), but still this is not enough
      Underlying this reversal are China and India
      Near East, North Africa, and the Sub-Saharan Africa the number of undernourished people has risen.
      In the Sub Saharan this is a trend that has been going on for the past three decades
      North Africa and the Near East are the only regions where the number and proportion of undernourished people has risen since 1992 the baseline.
      For the transition countries the number of undernourished people has slightly increased for 23 million to 25 million
    • The WFS and MDG targets
      Only Asia, the Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean have made progress toward the WFS goal but none are close to reaching it,
      The remaining regions have all moved away from the target
      Achieving the MDG looks more promising, all regions except the Near East and North Africa have been making progress to reducing the prevalence of undernourishment
      Asia, the Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean have made significant progress in the MDG goals
    • Sub regional Trends in Undernourishment
      Sub regions are like Central Africa, China, a large place in the region
      Southern Africa, East Africa, West Africa, all saw a decline in the prevalence of undernourishment
      Central America experienced an increase in the number of undernourished people and the prevalence of undernourishment
      Significant changes in China and the sub region of Southeast Asia were made to decrease the number of undernourished people
      India however declined the prevalence of undernourishment but not the number of undernourished people
      The number of undernourished people increased in South America, Mexico, Near East, and North America
    • The World Food Summit Target
      A ratio between 1 and 0.5 implies progress towards the target whereas one of 0.5 and less indicates the target has been achieved or surpassed. A ratio greater than 1 indicates setback
      The two extremes are the Baltic States and Central Africa
      Baltic States less than 0.5
      Central Africa more than 2
    • Undernourishment in the lead up to 2015
      Some of the FAO’s latest projections indicate an acceleration/increase in the future
      The prevalence of hunger in the developing countries as a group is projected to drop by exactly half from the baseline rate in 1992, from 20.3$ to 10.1%
      If this happen the MDG hunger reduction target will be met
      As for the WFS the number of undernourished people in 2015 is expected to remain in excess of its target by 170 million people
      Only East Asia is expected to reach the WFS’s target
      Sub Saharan Africa, Near East, North Africa are suffer an increase from the baseline
      Latin America, the Caribbean, and South Asia are expected to reach the MDG target but not the WFS target
    • Food Intake and Population Growth
      Despite the overall gains in food consumption, in several countries the increases will not be sufficient to allow for significant to allow for a significant reduction in the number of undernourished people
      Low initial levels of calorie intake coupled with high population growth will result in slow reductions in the number of undernourished people.
      Reducing hunger will be partially difficult for countries characterized by historically very high levels of hunger prevalence, low economic growth prospects, high population growth rates and a limited agriculture resource base; this includes 32 countries
      Despite their poor historical records, however, several of these countries could achieve significant gains by:
      Prioritizing the development of local food production
    • Undernourishment and Poverty
      Growth in per capita incomes will contribute to hunger improvement by reducing poverty and increasing per capita food demand
      Poverty declines more rapidly than undernourishment
      An important factor may be that hunger acts as a barrier for escaping poverty
    • The Situation a Century Ago
      The Second World War had a profound effect on world agriculture
      World Agricultural Production at the end of the war decreased by 5% from the pre war conditions
      Agriculture deeply suffered was devastation all around the world
      The fishing sector was also affected because of the loss of equipment and boats
      Many regions turned from having excess food to shortage
      There was a report called “The State of Food and Agriculture” published in the 1947 showing all the problems that might occur
    •  Developing Country Regions 
      Africa was categorized as the least economically and advanced region but that economic and social development was just a matter of time
      The report showed that Asia had a problem that it is around half the world population and has only 1/5 of its land, and that’s it majorly dependent of agriculture when they have no land
      The war caused Asia major problems destroying its agriculture and fishing
      On the other hand Latin America experienced rapid economic expansion after the war
      For Africa the war where years of economic progress, many terrorists where able to expand economic activity and agricultural production
      The Near East was undergoing the fastest economic prosperity
      The war period had generally been one of agricultural expansion for the Near East
    • Fisheries and Forestry
      The high seas belonged to everybody and they contained inexhaustible amounts of fish
      The state of food and agriculture did not mention the importance of conservation and long term development of forests
    • The 1950’s 
      For developing countries to raise their living standards their food production would have to rise 1-2 % above their population growth
      Industrialization was seen as the basic factor behind effective purchasing power for farm production, it would be necessary to keep food prices low to mitigate social hardship in the cities.
      Development planning was also very important where countries planned how they would improve their economy and agriculture, an example is China five year plan
      One major thing in development planning was self sufficiency on food so that incase of war the country would be able to survive
      In order to dispose of food surpluses the idea of food aid was created
    • The 1960’s
      There was new technology which helped with agriculture
      Efforts were made to decrease hunger and malnutrition by taking the surplus food from the developed countries and giving it to countries in food shortage
      Agriculture was an active source of development
      Trade issues were prominent during the 1960s, especially in the later part of the decade
      The key to development of developing countries was their ability to earn foreign exchanges from their exports
    • The 1970’s
      The 1970’s was the decade of crisis’s
      The Food Crisis was caused because bad weather conditions
      There were many droughts, a significant one in Ethiopia which 50,000-200,000 people dies
      The U.S decided to suspend the fixed gold convertibility of the U.S dollar, this especially affected developing countries
      There was also the energy crisis which was caused because of the sharp rise in the price of petroleum
      Many conferences were made to increase food production and productivity, and to create an early warning system
      There were worries that as the population increased the demand for natural resources will be too much
      Agricultural trade increased
    • The 1980’s
      The 1980’s was affected by a recession that affected all countries developed and not developed, it also affected the agricultural sector negatively
      There was a lot of food insecurity, many famines in Africa , this was because the developed countries did not have the money to import
      There was concern for the environment and nature because of forest devastation, depletion and waste in the fisheries resources , global warming
      There was an urgent need to bring more discipline and predictability to world agriculture trade by correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions including those related to structural surpluses so as to reduce the uncertainty, instability in world agricultural markets
      Rising awareness on gender issues in the field of food and agriculture
    • The 1990’s
      The realization that 800 million people in the world were undernourished
      Placing a global plan of Action for Nutrition trying to achieve the well being of all people
      The right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger
      Key issues were brought up such as reducing carbon emissions, a plan of action was placed for the 21st century
      The creation of the World Trade Center