Articulation Chapter From Previous Book


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Articulation Chapter From Previous Book

  1. 1. Thought for the week... The one being carried does not realize how far away the town is. Nigerian Proverb
  2. 2. Articulation Testing “I’m” going to show you some pictures and I want you to tell me what you see…”
  3. 3. Screening vs. Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Screening tests are used to determine if the client’s articulatory development is adequate or inadequate. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tests are used to provide a more detailed description of the client’s ability to produce wide range of speech sounds in a variety of syllable positions and phonetic contexts. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spontaneous and Imitative Responses <ul><li>Spontaneous responses would answer the question presented on the first slide. A picture would be shown to the client and he would be asked to name the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitative responses are produced after the clinician provides the word stimuli and the client is asked to repeat what was said. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stimulability <ul><li>Determines if the child can correct error phonemes when provided verbal stimuli at several levels of complexity (isolation, syllable, word, phrase, sentence). </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulability data provide an excellent prognostic tool. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prognosis - Judgment of what is expected to be accomplished </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Scoring <ul><li>Tests may require simple scoring of marking correct or incorrect productions. Further data can be obtained by recording if the error was a substitution, distortion or deletion. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, that phonetics course—use your skills. The more descriptive your scoring the more information you have to use when planning your intervention. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Number and type of errors <ul><li>Children develop correct articulation by progression through several stages of production—first the sound is omitted, substituted, distorted and then produced correctly (McDonald, 1965). </li></ul><ul><li>Listeners most frequently agree on correct or incorrect production but may not agree on the type of error that was made. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Age of Acquisition <ul><li>Several studies have attempted to determine age of acquisition data. These can be used as a guideline; none of the ages are set in stone and as you will note from reviewing the charts most of the “ages” are ranges. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Articulation/Intelligibility <ul><li>When reporting articulation the clinician must correlate how the errors impact the client’s intelligibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily intelligible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandable if the topic is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word intelligible now and then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintelligible </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Defining Speech Disorders (New Slide) <ul><li>The term speech disorders encompasses both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with individual sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child is usually intelligible or older </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the PAT, Arizona, Fisher Logeman or GFTA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem with a group of sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child is usually younger and unintelligible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Assessment of Phonological Processes or the GFTA scored with the Khan Lewis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Phonological Analysis <ul><li>Types of Phonological Analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Process Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of Phonological Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khan Lewis (used with the GFTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Key Concepts of a Phonological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Phonological Analysis <ul><li>3 Key Concepts of a Phonological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a set or inventory of different sounds produced by the speaker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds are contrastive (the contrasts result in different meanings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by place, manner and voicing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phonological Analysis <ul><li>3 Key Concepts of a Phonological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the rules and organiztion of the sound system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hey class------Name some initial English Consonants Blends or Clusters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can these Consonant Blends and Clusters occur in the final position as well? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>3 Key Concepts of a Phonological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the predictability of the speaker’s systemic and structural patterns or organization of their sound system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The system and structure in the English language is predictable— </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predict these words (use only consonants): </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mas_ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mo_ _ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_ pot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Frameworks for Analyzing Speech Sound Disorders <ul><li>Independent Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at the phonemes the child is saying INDEPENDENT OF THE ADULT MODEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetic Inventory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What sounds can little Billy say? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at what the child is saying IN RELATION TO THE ADULT MODEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All phonological tests are relational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All artic tests (PAT, GFTA, Arizona are relational) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of articulation tests <ul><li>Single phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Special purpose </li></ul>
  17. 17. Single phoneme articulation tests <ul><li>Can test the consonant, consonant blends and vowel production; examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental Articulation Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisher-Logemann Test of Articulation Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo Articulation Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denver Articulation Screening Exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Special Purpose Tests <ul><li>These tests were designed to test for specific problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iowa Pressure Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive Screening Test of Articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McDonald Deep Test of Articulation </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Articulation Disorders vs. Phonological Disorders <ul><li>Articulation disorder—implies that the child learned an inappropriate motor response. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological disorder—implies that the child has learned an inappropriate phonological rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological process analysis—is a more comprehensive description of the child’s articulation patterns. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Phonological Processes <ul><li>Final consonant deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Weak syllable deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Stopping </li></ul><ul><li>Fronting </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Voicing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Frication </li></ul><ul><li>Initial consonant deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduplication </li></ul><ul><li>Glottal replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Denasalization </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Regressive assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Backing </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tools for Phonological Analysis <ul><li>Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Processes Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Process Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of Phonological Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for Phonological Analysis of Children’s Language </li></ul>
  22. 22. Speech Sampling <ul><li>The benefit of speech sampling (when done correctly) is that it allows the child to produce language in a more natural setting and gives a more accurate view of his speech intelligibility in connected discourse. It allows for the influence of coarticulation on phonemic production. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Be thorough <ul><li>When completing your articulation test be thorough in your recording of responses. Your ears are an essential tool to being a good clinician, record what you hear not what you think you hear. Ask the client to repeat when you are uncertain about what sound was produced. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dialectal Differences (new) <ul><li>Dialects are mutually intelligible forms of a langauge that are associated with a particular region, social class or ethnic group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialects spoken in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appalachian English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ozark English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican American English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean English </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Homework <ul><li>Write the background portion and articulation portion of an initial diagnostic report. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Let’s Review ( and add!) <ul><li>Articulation assessments - evaluate the correctness of speech sounds and the client’s intelligibility </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation - actions of the organs of speech that modify the breath stream resulting in speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Severity - the degree of a disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligibility - the degree to which speech is understood by others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consistency of sound errors has an effect on intelligibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number and types of errors also has an influence </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Coarticulation - the concept that speech sounds are affected by the production of other sounds in a sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological processes - a pattern of sound changes that affects a class of sounds or overall structure of words or syllables; simplified sound production; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of Phonological Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khan Lewis Phonological Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness - refers to the awareness of and ability to manipulate the phonological segments in words; tasks include - syllabification, rhyming, blending, segmenting; NOT ARTICULATION PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness Test </li></ul></ul>