Moral reasons





    Legal reasons





    Safety pays

Handling accidents      30% of total
Slips trips and falls   25%
Struck by objects        5%
Striking objects        20%
H...
Technician Overturned          Amputated toes
           magnet
Labourer Manhole cover         Crushed fingers
Driver     ...
Most accidents are a result of human error
 Some errors are deliberate

 Some are errors of judgement

 Other errors ar...
Electricity

     Fire

     Slips, trips and falls

     Bumping into things

     Handling injuries

    - sharp ob...
Chemicals


    Radiation


    Micro-organisms


    Machinery


    Hand tools


    Pressure vessels


    Hot an...
Musculo-skeletal injuries


  - upper limb disorders (“RSI”)
  - back injuries
 Asthma

 Dermatitis

 Noise induced he...
Common law is unwritten but binding
 Derived from local/customary laws & judges decisions
 It evolves continuously as pr...
Criminal Law exists to punish offenders and

    guilt must be established “beyond
    reasonable doubt”

     Civil Law ...
If an accident occurs


    and somebody suffers injury or loss


    and negligence or breach of statutory duty

    c...
Actions for personal injury claims etc

  normally have to be brought within 3 years
  of the accident
 In the case of a...
Donoghue v Stevenson (1932): you must take reasonable

    care to avoid acts/omissions which you can reasonably
    fore...
Wilson & Clyde Coal v English 1938 A leading
  case which established an Employer’s duty
  of care towards employees “Mast...
Damages can be recovered if it can be proved

    that loss occurred because of the defendant’s
    failure to comply wit...
Employers are vicariously liable for the actions

    of their employees provided that the
    employees were acting in t...
Employees may also be sued. They have a duty

   to:
  - To carry out duties with reasonable care
  - To avoid loss to Em...
Edwards v National Coal Board (1949) Risk must be

    insignificant in relation to sacrifice (time, effort &
    expense...
“Volenti non fit injuria”: cannot expect redress if you

    consent to an act likely to result in injury or loss
    Cut...
Where a person suffers damage or loss
 Partly his/her fault

 Partly the fault(s) of other person(s)

Damages may still ...
Duty of reasonable care to lawful visitors (invitees,

    licensees, contractors & those with a right under
    law)
   ...
TRESPASS: CASE LAW
    Tichener v British Railways Board (1984)


    BRB not liable for injuries to teenage girl hit by ...
Lord Woolf (the Lord Chief Justice) drew up a

    Personal Injury Pre-action Protocol aimed at
    simplifying & streaml...
You are going to work by bus. You buy a ticket (a
  “contract” with the bus co).
During the journey, the driver collides w...
All criminal cases are first dealt with by Magistrates Courts. these

    can try summary offences and can commit people ...
Section 2: duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably
  practicable the health safety & welfare of employees
    safe workpla...
Section 4: duty of those in control of premises to non-

    employees
    Section 6: duties of manufacturers & suppliers...
Section 36: where the commission of an offence

    is due to the default of another person - that
    person shall be gu...
Made under the Health & Safety at Work etc Act 1974


    Often required by European Directives


    Consultative Docum...
Management of H&S at Work * Workplace Health, Safety
   & Welfare * Working time * Provision & Use of Work
  Equipment * P...
Assessment of risks


    planning, organisation, control monitoring & review


    health surveillance


    competent...
Maintenance,ventilation, heating & lighting


    Cleanliness & waste materials


    Space


    Workstations, floors ...
Risk assessment


    elimination or control of risk


    maintenance of equipment


    environmental monitoring


 ...
ACOPs are prepared by the Health & Safety

    Commission
    Although they are not laid before Parliament,

    they ha...
Entry to premises


    Involvement of police


    Make necessary examinations & investigations


    To direct premis...
A Prohibition Notice prohibits an activity (e.g. use

    of a dangerous machine)
    An Improvement Notice requires impr...
Failing to comply with an Improvement/ Prohibition

    Notice:
    Lower court £20,000 and/or 6 months in prison
    Hig...
Both individuals and organisations can be charged

    with manslaughter
    At present, a company can only be convicted ...
A chemical company (Associated Octel) used a firm of

    specialist contractors to carry out maintenance under
    permi...
People often say “health & safety is just

    common sense” but unfortunately, “common
    sense” is a rare commodity
  ...
Commitment to standards of good/best

    practice
    Duties/responsibilities of staff & employees


    Duties/respons...
Control - supervision, safe systems of

    work etc
    Consultation - Safety Committees,

    informal consultation
  ...
A little fire is quickly trodden out, which being
   suffered rivers cannot quench – Shakespeare
 Emergency plan

 Evacu...
Risk assessment


    Substances hazardous to health


    Stress management


    Supervision of contractors


    Ac...
Runs from .....................


    Incorporates Government targets for

    reduction of accidents and ill health at
...
Should be reviewed annually

 Could include:
 - policy revision
 - organisational initiatives (training etc)
 - risk ass...
Inspections by Trade Union


  Reps
 Health & Safety Management

 Audits
 Visits by insurers and enforcing
  authorities
All accidents and untoward incidents should be:

 - reported (RIDDOR)
 - recorded
 - investigated
 Remedial action must ...
Injuries which involve the following should be reported:
    Visitors, young persons or contractors being taken to

    h...
Encourage reporting of minor accidents and

    near misses
    Investigate & take action to prevent recurrence

    – i...
Review arrangements periodically


    when Annual H&S Reports written


    a significant change in activities


    A...
You must:
    Identify hazards


    decide who is at risk


    assess the risks


    Record significant findings


...
A hazard is the Anything


that can cause harm
 A risk is the probability or Likelihood

  that the hazard will
  cause ...
Some risks we accept as part of normal living.

    Most would consider such conditions to be “safe”.
    Other risks we ...
Look for hazards that could reasonably be
  expected to cause significant harm
 Check list

 Walk through survey

 Brai...
Operators


    Supervisors


    Contractors


    People sharing your workplace


    Visitors & members of the publ...
Risk =       Low         Moderate    High
Harm x       frequency   frequency   frequency
likelihood
Minor        Very low ...
Eliminate if practicable


    otherwise control exposure


    safe systems of work


    personal protective equipmen...
FIRE
Risk of multiple fatalities and material loss
    Keep combustible material to a minimum


    Take care with flammable s...
Fires can break out any time
 Do you know what to do ?

 Do you know where to go ?

 Do you know which extinguisher to ...
The following slides will help,
HOWEVER YOU SHOULD READ YOUR LOCAL
           FIRE INSTRUCTIONS,
    IT JUST MIGHT SAVE YO...
SHOUT,


    FIRE, FIRE, FIRE,


    don’t be embarrassed or worried about being

    wrong and don’t try to be a hero....
BREAK GLASS TO SOUND ALARM
USE THE NEAREST PHONE AND CALL THE

    EMERGENCY NUMBER.
GIVE YOUR
    NAME


    WHERE YOU ARE CALLING FROM


    WHERE THE FIRE IS


    ONLY IF IT IS SAFE TO DO SO - INFORM
...
LEAVE THE BUILDING BY THE NEAREST

    EXIT.
    CLOSE DOORS/ WINDOWS ONLY IF SAFE

    TO DO SO
    GO TO THE FIRE ASSE...
FIRE
EQUIPMENT



EMERGENCY
EXIT
ETC
Portable device used to put out fires of limited
  size. Such fires are grouped into four classes,
  according to the type...
Some extinguishers will put out only one class

    of fire; others are used for two or even three
    classes; none is s...
Fire extinguishers may go unused for many

    years, but they must be maintained in a state of
    readiness. For this r...
Class A fire extinguishers are usually water

    based. Water provides a heat-absorbing
    (cooling) effect on the burn...
Class B fires are put out by excluding air, by
       slowing down the release of flammable
    vapours, or by interruptin...
Carbon dioxide is a compressed gas agent that

    prevents combustion by displacing the oxygen in
    the air surroundin...
The two types of dry chemical extinguishers include

    one that contains ordinary sodium or potassium
    bicarbonate, ...
Most dry chemical extinguishers use stored

    pressure to discharge the agent, and the fire is
    extinguished mainly ...
Foam extinguishers use an aqueous film

    forming foam (AFFF) agent that expels a layer
    of foam when it is discharg...
The extinguishing agent in a class C fire

    extinguisher must be electrically non-
    conductive. Both carbon dioxide...
A heat-absorbing extinguishing medium is

    needed for fires in combustible metals. Also,
    the extinguishing medium ...
The extinguisher label gives operating

 instructions and identifies the class, or classes,
 of fire on which the extingu...
POWDER
WATER
        FOAM
                         CO2
         A FF




          New extinguishers
FOAM
WATER          POWDER   CO2
        AFFF
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
D  Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann
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D Part 6 Short Course By J Mc Cann

  1. 1. Moral reasons  Legal reasons  Safety pays 
  2. 2. Handling accidents 30% of total Slips trips and falls 25% Struck by objects 5% Striking objects 20% Harmful substances 10% Fires 5%
  3. 3. Technician Overturned Amputated toes magnet Labourer Manhole cover Crushed fingers Driver Car crash Whiplash injury Manager Damaged socket Electric shock Chef Tipping kettle Severe scalding Technician Slip on wet floor Broken arm
  4. 4. Most accidents are a result of human error  Some errors are deliberate  Some are errors of judgement  Other errors are mistakes made as a result of forgetfulness or carelessness Often management deficiencies are underlying causes of accidents
  5. 5. Electricity  Fire  Slips, trips and falls  Bumping into things  Handling injuries  - sharp objects - lifting & carrying Falling/flying objects  Present in most workplaces
  6. 6. Chemicals  Radiation  Micro-organisms  Machinery  Hand tools  Pressure vessels  Hot and cold objects  Present in some workplaces
  7. 7. Musculo-skeletal injuries  - upper limb disorders (“RSI”) - back injuries  Asthma  Dermatitis  Noise induced hearing loss  Vibration white finger  Stress related illness Can be referred to the Occupational Health
  8. 8. Common law is unwritten but binding  Derived from local/customary laws & judges decisions  It evolves continuously as precedents are established  decisions of a lower court can be overturned by a higher court Statute law is written  Passed by Parliament and approved by the Sovereign  It takes precedent over all other forms of Law (Common Law) etc.  Some Statute law is derived from decisions of the European Union; EC DIRECTIVES
  9. 9. Criminal Law exists to punish offenders and  guilt must be established “beyond reasonable doubt” Civil Law is concerned with compensation  and redress: the burden of proof is “the balance of probability” (a lower standard of proof)
  10. 10. If an accident occurs  and somebody suffers injury or loss  and negligence or breach of statutory duty  can be proved damages may be recoverable 
  11. 11. Actions for personal injury claims etc  normally have to be brought within 3 years of the accident  In the case of a disease (e.g. asbestosis the limitation is 3 years from diagnosis  Courts may allow some time barred cases to proceed
  12. 12. Donoghue v Stevenson (1932): you must take reasonable  care to avoid acts/omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour This duty of care is owed to people who are closely & directly  affected by your acts/omissions (e.g. employers, employees, contractors, visitors, suppliers) defences against actions include: no duty owed, duty not  breached, breach did not lead to damage, risk accepted voluntarily, contributory negligence Ignorantia Juris non excusat; IGNORANCE OF THE LAW IS  NOT AN EXCUSE
  13. 13. Wilson & Clyde Coal v English 1938 A leading case which established an Employer’s duty of care towards employees “Master’s duty to a Servant”  Safe premises  Safe plant & equipment  Competent fellow workers  Adequate supervision
  14. 14. Damages can be recovered if it can be proved  that loss occurred because of the defendant’s failure to comply with a statutory requirement May be easier to prove than negligence  Main defences: duty not breached, injured party  not protected by statute, harm not of type statute designed to protect, contributory negligence Some statutory duties are absolute 
  15. 15. Employers are vicariously liable for the actions  of their employees provided that the employees were acting in the course of their employment Even if the activity was expressly forbidden or  the employee was negligent (e.g. Limpus vs London Omnibus Co., 1862)
  16. 16. Employees may also be sued. They have a duty  to: - To carry out duties with reasonable care - To avoid loss to Employer  Employers not liable for activities that do not form part of employees’ employment “servant’s frolic of his own” Storey v Aston (1869) Employer not liable for accident caused during unauthorised detour
  17. 17. Edwards v National Coal Board (1949) Risk must be  insignificant in relation to sacrifice (time, effort & expense Marshal v Gotham & Co (1954) If something is  practicable, courts will not lightly hold that it is not reasonably practicable Adsett v K&L Steelfounders & Engineers Ltd (1953)  The standard of practicality is that of current knowledge, not having sufficient resources is no excuse for inaction
  18. 18. “Volenti non fit injuria”: cannot expect redress if you  consent to an act likely to result in injury or loss Cutler v United dairies (1933) Cutler failed to recover  damages after being injured trying to restrain a bolting horse: it was held he consented to the risk Haynes v Harwood (1935) A policeman was able to  recover damages after being injured restraining as bolting horse: he had a legal duty to protect life & property and was not held to have consented willingly to the action
  19. 19. Where a person suffers damage or loss  Partly his/her fault  Partly the fault(s) of other person(s) Damages may still be recoverable but the amount will be reduced in proportion to the claimant’s responsibility Saywer vs Harlow UDC (1958) Contributory negligence was accepted after a woman was injured when she put her foot on a revolving toilet roll while trying to get out of a cubicle
  20. 20. Duty of reasonable care to lawful visitors (invitees,  licensees, contractors & those with a right under law) Need to ensure premises are reasonably safe.  Dangerous defects must be repaired and warning notices displayed as necessary Should expect children to be less careful than  adults Common Law duty not to cause trespassers  intended harm
  21. 21. TRESPASS: CASE LAW Tichener v British Railways Board (1984)  BRB not liable for injuries to teenage girl hit by a train even though fence was not maintained (Girl frequently & willingly took risk) British Railways Board vs Herrington (1972)  BRB liable for injuries to a 6-year old child who had strayed onto the line
  22. 22. Lord Woolf (the Lord Chief Justice) drew up a  Personal Injury Pre-action Protocol aimed at simplifying & streamlining claim procedures Claims must proceed to a strict timetable  Defendants must investigate claims & disclose  relevant documents within the timetable If the protocol is not complied with, Courts may  impose tough sanctions
  23. 23. You are going to work by bus. You buy a ticket (a “contract” with the bus co). During the journey, the driver collides with another vehicle and you suffer minor cuts and bruises. By the time everything is sorted out, you are very late for work. You sprint from the bus stop and trip over a paving stone, breaking your arm. Who is, if anybody, is liable for your injuries?
  24. 24. All criminal cases are first dealt with by Magistrates Courts. these  can try summary offences and can commit people accused of indictable offences (& commit people for sentencing) to the Crown Court. The Crown Court tries Indictable offences. Trial is before a Judge  (with a Jury in contested cases. Can also hear appeals from Magistrates Courts. The High Court of Justice hears appeals from Magistrates & some  appeals from Crown Courts. The Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) hears appeals from Crown  Courts it can amend or reverse decisions or remit cases to lower courts The House of Lords is the ultimate court of appeal 
  25. 25. Section 2: duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable the health safety & welfare of employees safe workplace & safe working practices  information, training & supervision  adequate welfare facilities  health & safety policy  safety representatives & committees  Section 3: employers to conduct undertakings so as to ensure so far as is reasonably practicable that persons not in his employment are not exposed to risks to their health & safety
  26. 26. Section 4: duty of those in control of premises to non-  employees Section 6: duties of manufacturers & suppliers (includes  provision of safety information) Section 7: duty of employees to take reasonable care for  their health & safety and that of others affected by their acts/ omissions and to co-operate with employer Section 8: no person to intentionally/ recklessly interfere with  or misuse anything provided for health, safety or welfare Section 9: no charge to employees for H&S items 
  27. 27. Section 36: where the commission of an offence  is due to the default of another person - that person shall be guilty of the offence Section 37: Directors are responsible (as well as  the body corporate) for offences committed with their consent/connivance or attributable to any neglect on their part
  28. 28. Made under the Health & Safety at Work etc Act 1974  Often required by European Directives  Consultative Documents issued by Health & Safety  Commission Signed by the Secretary of State  Laid before Parliament  Have coming into force (CIF) dates  Most may be cited in “breach of statutory duties”  actions (but not HSAWA or MHSWR)
  29. 29. Management of H&S at Work * Workplace Health, Safety & Welfare * Working time * Provision & Use of Work Equipment * Personal Protective Equipment at Work * Display Screen Equipment * Manual Handling Operations * Safety Signs & Signals * Pressure Systems * Electricity at Work * First Aid at Work * Control of Substances Hazardous to Health * Control of Asbestos at Work * Genetic Modification (Contained Use) Regulations * Dangerous Substances & Explosive Atmospheres * Ionising Radiations * Genetic Modification * Reporting of Accidents, Incidents & Dangerous Occurrences
  30. 30. Assessment of risks  planning, organisation, control monitoring & review  health surveillance  competent H&S personnel  emergency procedures  information & training  co-operation with other employers  employees to follow instructions & report serious  dangers/shortcomings
  31. 31. Maintenance,ventilation, heating & lighting  Cleanliness & waste materials  Space  Workstations, floors & traffic routes  Measures to prevent falls or falling objects  Windows, skylights & ventilators  escalators, walkways, doors & gates  toilets, washing facilities, drinking water  Facilities for changing, resting & eating 
  32. 32. Risk assessment  elimination or control of risk  maintenance of equipment  environmental monitoring  health surveillance  emergency procedures  information, instruction & training 
  33. 33. ACOPs are prepared by the Health & Safety  Commission Although they are not laid before Parliament,  they have a legal status They set out how Regulations may be complied  with You do not have to follow the ACOP but if you do  not you may have to prove that you complied with the Regulations by other means
  34. 34. Entry to premises  Involvement of police  Make necessary examinations & investigations  To direct premises are undisturbed  To take photographs, measurements & samples  To order plant to be dismantled  Require witness statements  Inspect documents etc 
  35. 35. A Prohibition Notice prohibits an activity (e.g. use  of a dangerous machine) An Improvement Notice requires improvements  (usually within a time scale) Organisations can appeal against notices to an  Industrial Tribunal The HSE “names and shames” offenders  Enforcing Authorities can prosecute offenders for  breaches of HSAWA or Regulations made under HSAWA
  36. 36. Failing to comply with an Improvement/ Prohibition  Notice: Lower court £20,000 and/or 6 months in prison Higher court unlimited fine and/or 2 years in prison Breaches of sections 2-6 of HSAWA  Lower court £20,000; higher court unlimited fine Breaches of regulations etc  Lower court £5,000; upper court unlimited fine
  37. 37. Both individuals and organisations can be charged  with manslaughter At present, a company can only be convicted of  manslaughter if “the Controlling mind” is first proved guilty This is normally only possible with very small  companies The law is being changed to make it easier to  convict larger organisations
  38. 38. A chemical company (Associated Octel) used a firm of  specialist contractors to carry out maintenance under permit to work systems One of the contractors suffered severe burns when a  lamp broke setting fire to solvent vapours from a bucket of acetone which was being used as a cleaning agent AO denied responsibility, claiming that the activities of the  contractors were “not part of their undertaking” If you were an HSE inspector, who would you prosecute  and why?
  39. 39. People often say “health & safety is just  common sense” but unfortunately, “common sense” is a rare commodity A proactive management system is  needed if accidents and work related ill health are to be reduced Policy, organisation, planning, monitoring,  review
  40. 40. Commitment to standards of good/best  practice Duties/responsibilities of staff & employees  Duties/responsibilities to public, visitors.  May be supplemented by local rules  Signed by Head of Department  Periodically reviewed 
  41. 41. Control - supervision, safe systems of  work etc Consultation - Safety Committees,  informal consultation Communication - intra-departmental,  OHS Bulletin, web site etc Competence - health & safety  information, instruction, and training
  42. 42. A little fire is quickly trodden out, which being suffered rivers cannot quench – Shakespeare  Emergency plan  Evacuation wardens  Training & information  Emergency kits  Fire prevention
  43. 43. Risk assessment  Substances hazardous to health  Stress management  Supervision of contractors  Accident investigation  Office safety  Fire & emergencies etc 
  44. 44. Runs from .....................  Incorporates Government targets for  reduction of accidents and ill health at work Addresses each of the 5 areas of H&S  management Sets a timetable for action 
  45. 45. Should be reviewed annually   Could include: - policy revision - organisational initiatives (training etc) - risk assessment - risk elimination or control initiatives - monitoring/review  Can include in Annual H&S Report
  46. 46. Inspections by Trade Union  Reps  Health & Safety Management Audits  Visits by insurers and enforcing authorities
  47. 47. All accidents and untoward incidents should be:  - reported (RIDDOR) - recorded - investigated  Remedial action must be taken to prevent repetition
  48. 48. Injuries which involve the following should be reported: Visitors, young persons or contractors being taken to  hospital A time loss of more than 3 days results  Admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours  Death ● Resuscitation ● Amputation  Loss of consciousness ● Fractures ● Dislocations  Loss of sight (temporary or permanent)  Specified diseases  Specified dangerous occurrences 
  49. 49. Encourage reporting of minor accidents and  near misses Investigate & take action to prevent recurrence  – immediate & underlying causes Ensure accident form is completed  Keep a copy with relevant documentation, (e.g.  witness statements, records of training, photographs) Investigations should be about preventing  recurrence, not apportioning blame
  50. 50. Review arrangements periodically  when Annual H&S Reports written  a significant change in activities  After a serious incident 
  51. 51. You must: Identify hazards  decide who is at risk  assess the risks  Record significant findings  eliminate or control risks 
  52. 52. A hazard is the Anything  that can cause harm  A risk is the probability or Likelihood that the hazard will cause harm
  53. 53. Some risks we accept as part of normal living.  Most would consider such conditions to be “safe”. Other risks we tolerate because we consider the  benefits outweigh the risks (e.g. driving a car). Conditions should also be relatively safe, provided risks are reduced as low as is reasonably practicable (ALARP). Some risks are considered intolerable and most  would consider conditions “unsafe”
  54. 54. Look for hazards that could reasonably be expected to cause significant harm  Check list  Walk through survey  Brainstorming session What could go wrong if…………………….? How could such a failure happen………...?
  55. 55. Operators  Supervisors  Contractors  People sharing your workplace  Visitors & members of the public  Special risks (pregnant women, young or  inexperienced persons, lone workers, people with disabilities etc)
  56. 56. Risk = Low Moderate High Harm x frequency frequency frequency likelihood Minor Very low Low risk Moderate injury risk risk Serious Low/ Moderate High risk injury Moderate risk Major Moderate/ High risk Very high injury high risk risk
  57. 57. Eliminate if practicable  otherwise control exposure  safe systems of work  personal protective equipment  instruction and training  emergency procedures  health surveillance 
  58. 58. FIRE
  59. 59. Risk of multiple fatalities and material loss Keep combustible material to a minimum  Take care with flammable solvents  Dispose of waste promptly  Take care with sources of ignition  Do not wedge fire doors open  Do not block fire exits  Report faults etc promptly 
  60. 60. Fires can break out any time  Do you know what to do ?  Do you know where to go ?  Do you know which extinguisher to use ?
  61. 61. The following slides will help, HOWEVER YOU SHOULD READ YOUR LOCAL FIRE INSTRUCTIONS, IT JUST MIGHT SAVE YOUR LIFE OR SOMEONE ELSES.
  62. 62. SHOUT,  FIRE, FIRE, FIRE,  don’t be embarrassed or worried about being  wrong and don’t try to be a hero. Press the nearest FIRE CALL BUTTON, get to  know where they are, normally by or close too exits.
  63. 63. BREAK GLASS TO SOUND ALARM
  64. 64. USE THE NEAREST PHONE AND CALL THE  EMERGENCY NUMBER.
  65. 65. GIVE YOUR NAME  WHERE YOU ARE CALLING FROM  WHERE THE FIRE IS  ONLY IF IT IS SAFE TO DO SO - INFORM  THE OPERATOR IF YOU ARE MAKING AN ATTEMPT TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE
  66. 66. LEAVE THE BUILDING BY THE NEAREST  EXIT. CLOSE DOORS/ WINDOWS ONLY IF SAFE  TO DO SO GO TO THE FIRE ASSEMBLY POINT  AWAIT THE FIRE SERVICE 
  67. 67. FIRE EQUIPMENT EMERGENCY EXIT ETC
  68. 68. Portable device used to put out fires of limited size. Such fires are grouped into four classes, according to the type of material that is burning.  Class A fires include those in which ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper are burning.  Class B fires are those in which flammable liquids, oils, and grease are burning.  Class C fires are those involving live electrical equipment.  Class D fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium, and sodium. Each class of fire requires its own type of fire extinguisher.
  69. 69. Some extinguishers will put out only one class  of fire; others are used for two or even three classes; none is suitable for all four classes.
  70. 70. Fire extinguishers may go unused for many  years, but they must be maintained in a state of readiness. For this reason, periodic inspection and servicing are required, and that responsibility rests with the owner. Local Authority Fire department inspectors check at periodic intervals to see that extinguishers are present where required by law and that they have been serviced within the specified time period.
  71. 71. Class A fire extinguishers are usually water  based. Water provides a heat-absorbing (cooling) effect on the burning material to extinguish the fire. Stored-pressure extinguishers use air under pressure to expel water.
  72. 72. Class B fires are put out by excluding air, by slowing down the release of flammable vapours, or by interrupting the chain reaction of the combustion. Three types of extinguishing agents —  carbon dioxide gas,  dry chemical (powder), and  foam are used for fires involving flammable liquids, liquefiable solids, greases, and oils.
  73. 73. Carbon dioxide is a compressed gas agent that  prevents combustion by displacing the oxygen in the air surrounding the fire. (CAUTION, DO NOT TOUCH THE HORN OR BASE OF THE EXTINGUISHER DURING DISCHARGE AS THEY BECOME EXTREMELY COLD)
  74. 74. The two types of dry chemical extinguishers include  one that contains ordinary sodium or potassium bicarbonate, urea potassium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride base agents; The multi-purpose, dry chemical type extinguishers  contains an ammonium phosphate based powder. The multi-purpose extinguisher can be used on class A, B, and C fires.
  75. 75. Most dry chemical extinguishers use stored  pressure to discharge the agent, and the fire is extinguished mainly by the interruption of the combustion chain reaction.
  76. 76. Foam extinguishers use an aqueous film  forming foam (AFFF) agent that expels a layer of foam when it is discharged through a nozzle. It acts as a barrier to exclude oxygen from the fire
  77. 77. The extinguishing agent in a class C fire  extinguisher must be electrically non- conductive. Both carbon dioxide and dry chemicals can be used in electrical fires. An advantage of carbon dioxide is that it leaves no residue after the fire is extinguished. When electrical equipment is not energized, extinguishers for class A or B fires may be used.
  78. 78. A heat-absorbing extinguishing medium is  needed for fires in combustible metals. Also, the extinguishing medium must not react with the burning metal. The extinguishing agents, known as dry powders, cover the burning metal and provide a smothering blanket.
  79. 79. The extinguisher label gives operating  instructions and identifies the class, or classes, of fire on which the extinguisher may be used safely. USING THE WRONG EXTINGUISHER CAN BE DANGEROUS
  80. 80. POWDER WATER FOAM CO2 A FF New extinguishers
  81. 81. FOAM WATER POWDER CO2 AFFF

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