Muscular

2,879 views
2,670 views

Published on

from a previous class

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,879
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Muscular

  1. 1. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM By Elisa Glubok
  2. 2. SUMMARY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><ul><li>Skeletal - Striated, Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structurally supported by the skeletal system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>controlled by the nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Muscle Fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Nuclei </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac-Striated, Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardium: the heart muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart pumps the circulatory system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cardiac Muscle Cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Nuclei </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Intercalated Disks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth-Non-Striated, Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary tract/bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Internal Organs, Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>IMAGES FROM: http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html
  3. 3. THE STRUCTURAL HIERARCHY OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLE Image from: http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f10-1a_structural_organ_c.jpg
  4. 4. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY Image from: http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20J%20%20Muscle%20Contraction.htm
  5. 5. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY CNTD. Images from: http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20J%20%20Muscle%20Contraction.htm, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Sarcomere.svg <ul><li>Troponin complex is attached to strands of Tropomyosin </li></ul><ul><li>Tropomyosin surrounds thin actin filament </li></ul><ul><li>Troponin complex attaches to Ca 2+ during contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Troponin complex unblocks myosin binding site </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin head attaches to binding site </li></ul><ul><li>Thin and thick filament slide past each other </li></ul>SDU Sliding Filament Theory
  6. 6. THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION <ul><li>Neuromuscular Junction </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter used to communicate with the skeletal muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>ACh is stored in the synaptic vessels at the neuromuscular junction </li></ul><ul><li>When the junction receives an impulse, calcium ions (Ca 2+) are released </li></ul><ul><li>ACh is released at the membrane through exocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>ACh diffuses across myoneural junction </li></ul><ul><li>The binding of ACh sends an action potential down through the T-tubules </li></ul><ul><li>ACh is then broken down by AChE (acetylcholinesterase) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fiber contracts in response to action potential </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION CNTD. Image from: http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20J%20%20Muscle%20Contraction.htm
  8. 8. THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES <ul><li>Striated, multinucleate </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction can occur without nervous input </li></ul><ul><li>Pacemaker cells= cells that produce stimulation for contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Intercalated disks allow for communication between cardiac cell muscles for coordinated contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts and relaxes without conscious thought </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>Single innervating nerve sends message to multiple cells to move similarly </li></ul><ul><li>“ spindle” shaped cells with single central, elongated nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscle </li></ul>
  9. 9. HELPFUL VIDEOS <ul><li>Muscular Sliding Filament Theory (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Sliding Filament Theory (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular Junction </li></ul>
  10. 10. MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY <ul><li>Group of 30+ diseases caused by genetic inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be acquired throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Different ages onset, may not be apparent at birth </li></ul><ul><li>More common in boys </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized weakness of the voluntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Degeneration of skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Generally symmetrically distributed weakness </li></ul><ul><li>No pain </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS NO CURE FOR MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Causes/Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul>
  11. 11. DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY A.K.A. PSEUDOHYPERTROPHIC DYSTROPHY <ul><li>Most common and severe type of muscular dystrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by an absence of dystrophin (keeps muscles intact) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows up in early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Results in generalized weakness and muscle deterioration of the thighs, hips, pelvic area and shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Progresses to affect all voluntary, breathing, and heart muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Survival beyond 30’s is rare </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily affects boys because the disease is X-linked recessive </li></ul><ul><li>About 2 in 1,000 of boys (0.2%) are born with the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Women can be carriers but rarely exhibit symptoms </li></ul>Image from: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/Men-Os/Muscular-Dystrophy.html
  12. 12. WORKS CITED <ul><ul><li>Campbell, Neil A. and Reece, Jane B. Biology: AP Edition. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, 2005. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christoffersen, Hans. “Muscle Tissue.” Developmental Biology Online. University of Guelph. 8 May 2008. <http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dowshen, Steven. “Your Muscles.” Kids Health for Kids . June 2006. Nemours Foundation. 2 May 2008. <http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/muscles.html>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.” Muscular Dystrophy Association. July 2007. Google. 8 May 2008. <http://www.mda.org/disease/dmd.html> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Learning the Muscular System.” Kellogg Community College. 19 January 2005. 12 May 2008. <http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f10-1a_structural_organ_c.jpg>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liang, Barb. “The Neuromuscular Junction.” Advanced Anatomy and Physiology. 6 May 2008. <http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP2804>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muscles and Muscle Systems.” Encyclopedia Brittanica . Fifteenth Edition Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica. (24, 452-479) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muscular Dystrophy.” Human Illnesses and Behavioral Health. 12 May 2008. Google. <http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/Men-Os/Muscular-Dystrophy.html> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muscular System, Sliding Filament Theory.” YouTube. 8 December 2007. 7 May 2008. <http://youtube.com/watch?v=EdHzKYDxrKc>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muscular System, Sliding Filament Theory (2).” YouTube. 8 December 2007. 7 May 2008. <http://youtube.com/watch?v=Vlchs4omFDM&feature=related>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Neuromuscular Junction.” YouTube. 8 December 2007. 8 May 2008. <http://youtube.com/watch?v=ZscXOvDgCmQ&feature=related>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ NINDS Muscular Dystrophy Information Page.” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 12 February 2008. National Institutes of Health. 6 May 2008. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/md.htm>.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muscular System.” Human Anatomy Online. Intellimed National Corporation. 5 May 2008. <http://www.innerbody.com/image/musfov.html> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritchison, Gary. “BIO 301 Human Physiology.” Eastern Kentucky University. 1 May 2008. <http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/RITCHISO//301notes3.htm>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Stages of a Muscle Contraction.” Anatomy and Physiology I. 12 May 2008. <http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20J%20%20Muscle%20Contraction.htm> </li></ul></ul>

×