Shale is fractured and heated underground to release oils
High potential but methods still experimental
Surface (Open Pit)
Traditional mining from the earth’s surface
Transported to processing facility
Electrical heating in Colorado
Lowers heating element into well which heats kerogen over four years
Converts organic material into oils and gases which are then pumped to the surface
Reduces footprint of extraction operations
Could potentially extract more oil from a given area of land
“ The rock that burns.”
The Refining Process
* Removal of contaminants and impurities
* Further processing
How much is available? 9,600 400 – South America 140,000 80,000 3,340,000 North America 24,600 4,600 35,360 Middle East 6,500 300 4,180 Europe 36,985 1,725 32,400 Australia – 1,100 20,570 Asia 5,900 500 12,373 Africa Kerogen in Place Kerogen Reserves Shale Reserves Region Estimated Shale Oil Reserves (Millions of Tonnes)
We have it: let’s apply it to our needs
1.56 Trillion potential barrels of recoverable oil worldwide
980 billion potential barrels in the US
On a world scale, assuming China and India increase oil demand excessively, we have potentially 62 yrs of shale oil
Domestically, if we don’t import or export, we have potentially 157 years of shale oil
Where is ours?
Distribution: is it possible here? Current natural gas pipeline system Current Refined and Crude Oil Pipelines
Efficiency: We Can Only Get Better
The Canadians did it, so can we
High areal density
With In-Situ recovery the EROEI is 3.5:1.
Crude oil’s EROEI is about 5:1.
In-Situ uses less than 1/3 of a barrel of water
Could create drinking water
Today oil shale is competitive when a barrel of oil costs $58.50
Oil Tech $10-20
Open pit $40-50
Problem: open-pit mining
Production uses and pollutes water
Exposed sulfides oxidize by air and rain, creating sulfuric acid.
In Estonia, EU environmental reforms threaten the end of self-sufficiency by open-pit shale oil harvesting.
The answer to open-pit problems: shale oil of the future!
Technology: alleviating the environment
Companies like Chattanooga Corp have further developed in-situ mining, resulting in:
* Dry processing. * Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. * Simultaneous land reclamation. * Minimized plant footprint. * Removal of 99.8% of all sulfur.
Shell claims they will be able to harvest about 65% of the oil in place, in both liquid and natural gas forms.
A solution to the foreign problem
Self sufficiency: avoid Estonia’s mistakes
Use new technology for optimum efficiency and minimal environmental impact.
Additional shale available from “friendly countries”
Maintain and strengthen relations with those countries who can help us with transition to shale oil.