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  1. 1. Shale Oil The solution to today’s energy problem
  2. 2. What is oil shale? <ul><li>Rocks containing Kerogen </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by Organic Matter Deposits in Aquatic Environs </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Used since at least 1300 AD </li></ul><ul><li>USA and others countries havee experimented with production since mid-1800s </li></ul><ul><li>American Booms: 1915-late 1920s </li></ul><ul><li> 1973-early 1990s </li></ul>
  4. 5. Mining <ul><li>Underground (In-Situ) </li></ul><ul><li>Shale is fractured and heated underground to release oils </li></ul><ul><li>High potential but methods still experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Surface (Open Pit) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional mining from the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Transported to processing facility </li></ul>
  5. 6. In-Situ Research <ul><li>Electrical heating in Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers heating element into well which heats kerogen over four years </li></ul><ul><li>Converts organic material into oils and gases which are then pumped to the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces footprint of extraction operations </li></ul><ul><li>Could potentially extract more oil from a given area of land </li></ul>
  6. 7. Refining <ul><li>“ The rock that burns.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum Refining </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Refining Process <ul><li>Fractional Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>* Separation </li></ul><ul><li>* Removal of contaminants and impurities </li></ul><ul><li>* Further processing </li></ul>
  8. 9. How much is available? 9,600 400 – South America 140,000 80,000 3,340,000 North America 24,600 4,600 35,360 Middle East 6,500 300 4,180 Europe 36,985 1,725 32,400 Australia – 1,100 20,570 Asia 5,900 500 12,373 Africa Kerogen in Place Kerogen Reserves Shale Reserves Region Estimated Shale Oil Reserves (Millions of Tonnes)
  9. 10. We have it: let’s apply it to our needs <ul><li>1.56 Trillion potential barrels of recoverable oil worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>980 billion potential barrels in the US </li></ul><ul><li>On a world scale, assuming China and India increase oil demand excessively, we have potentially 62 yrs of shale oil </li></ul><ul><li>Domestically, if we don’t import or export, we have potentially 157 years of shale oil </li></ul>
  10. 11. Where is ours?
  11. 12. Distribution: is it possible here? Current natural gas pipeline system Current Refined and Crude Oil Pipelines
  12. 13. Efficiency: We Can Only Get Better <ul><li>The Canadians did it, so can we </li></ul><ul><li>High areal density </li></ul><ul><li>With In-Situ recovery the EROEI is 3.5:1. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude oil’s EROEI is about 5:1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-Situ uses less than 1/3 of a barrel of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could create drinking water </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Competitive Costs <ul><li>Today oil shale is competitive when a barrel of oil costs $58.50 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Tech $10-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell $30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open pit $40-50 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Environmental costs? <ul><li>Problem: open-pit mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production uses and pollutes water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed sulfides oxidize by air and rain, creating sulfuric acid. </li></ul></ul>In Estonia, EU environmental reforms threaten the end of self-sufficiency by open-pit shale oil harvesting.
  15. 16. The answer to open-pit problems: shale oil of the future!
  16. 17. Technology: alleviating the environment <ul><li>Companies like Chattanooga Corp have further developed in-situ mining, resulting in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Dry processing. * Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. * Simultaneous land reclamation. * Minimized plant footprint. * Removal of 99.8% of all sulfur. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shell claims they will be able to harvest about 65% of the oil in place, in both liquid and natural gas forms. </li></ul>
  17. 18. A solution to the foreign problem <ul><li>Self sufficiency: avoid Estonia’s mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use new technology for optimum efficiency and minimal environmental impact. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional shale available from “friendly countries” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain and strengthen relations with those countries who can help us with transition to shale oil. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. The solution is under your feet