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  • V3

    1. 1. Selection of Materials Group 1 – “Team FMA” Jane O’Sullivan | Jeannie Ahn | Carolyn Sawyer Korrinn Strunk | Steven Spurgeon | Clifford Kang
    2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Cost of Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Global Energy Demand </li></ul>Energy Information Administration (2007)
    3. 3. Background <ul><li>Soaring oil prices, coupled with increased global demand, necessitate the development of new energy production technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind energy is an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional energy sources: it is renewable and sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind energy doesn’t have the drawbacks of other renewable sources: solar is expensive, hydroelectric is location-dependant, and nuclear is socially undesirable. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Current Technology <ul><li>Materials used today: </li></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Glass-reinforced plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Fiber- Reinforced Plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Epoxy </li></ul>Blade cross-section
    5. 5. Trends in Design Two primary areas of development
    6. 6. Materials Evolution <ul><li>The majority of turbine are manufactured today are made of steel alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel is relatively cheap and manufacturing techniques are already established. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger blade lengths will require the development of novel materials </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic-polymer composites are promising because of their high fatigue resistance, high stiffness, and strength. </li></ul>
    7. 7. More on Composites <ul><li>We chose composite materials for our design. </li></ul><ul><li>Composites are the only material class that offers suitably low density and high strength, stiffness and fatigue resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals—even aluminum—are too heavy for new lengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics have poor fatigue resistance and polymers poor stiffness and strength. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Our Selection <ul><li>Potential candidates are Knytex E-glass fabrics with an unsaturated orthopthalic polyester resin, though there are many options (Samborksy). </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional processing techniques can be extended to manufacturing large blades, reducing cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Future materials might include carbon fibers, but currently these are too expensive to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there are no limits to continued use of fiberglass at increasing sizes. </li></ul>Ceramic-polymer (fiberglass) composites
    9. 9. Justification: Mechanical <ul><li>Rotor blades must be stiff enough to hold their shape over 65 meters </li></ul><ul><li>They must be light to alleviate stress on themselves and other components </li></ul><ul><li>The major mechanical consideration is fatigue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue in bending caused by gravity during rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue caused by strong winds which may be turbulent and unpredictable </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Justification: Environmental
    11. 11. Justification: Economic <ul><li>Windpower is getting cheaper to produce! </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine represents a large portion (70%) of overall cost, but installation, transportation, financing, and legal fees are all important (Vaughn). </li></ul><ul><li>Fiberglass materials are a good choice because they are long-lasting and manufacturing techniques are already established. </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of government subsidies and tax credits exist for the construction of wind power plants. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Cost Evolution Since its introduction, the cost of windpower has decreased by 75% Clipper Windpower (2008) 1981 1985 1990 1996 1999 2004 Rotor (m) 10 17 27 40 50 77 Power (kW) 25 100 225 550 750 1500 Total Cost $65 $165 $300 $580 $730 $1,200 Cost/kW $2,600 $1,650 $1,333 $1,050 $950 $800 MWh 45 220 550 1,480 2,200 5,600
    13. 13. Fiberglass Blade Cost National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2006) Our focus
    14. 14. Transportation Costs <ul><li>Transportation comprises a quarter of the initial startup cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing gas prices make it difficult to transport large blades over long distances. </li></ul>Malcolm & Hansen (2006) Power Rating Transport Cost / Turbine Cost / kW 750 kW $26,586 $35.40 1.5 MW $51,004 $34.00 3.0 MW $253,410 $84.40 5.0 MW $1,312,150 $262.40
    15. 15. Installation Costs <ul><li>Installation costs are negligible compared to the overall manufacturing and transport costs. </li></ul><ul><li>An important concern is accessibility to power grid. </li></ul>Malcolm & Hansen (2006) Power Rating Installation Cost / Turbine Cost / kW 750 kW $24,374 $32.50 1.5 MW $50,713 $33.80 3.0 MW $112,714 $37.50 5.0 MW $224,790 $44.90
    16. 16. Other Cost Considerations <ul><li>Power Grid : Generating power is one thing, connecting it to the power grid is another, and is usually very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Fees : Obtaining the proper licensing and permits are often difficult and expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Incentives : Renewable tax credits and other incentives offered by national and state governments make wind power a worthwhile business model. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Summary <ul><li>Fiberglass is the best material for the wind turbine blades because it is sufficiently strong , cost-efficient , and has low ecological impact . </li></ul><ul><li>Although carbon fiber and wood composites may look nice on paper, they are too expensive and impractical. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiberglass is easily extensible to larger blade sizes and is a widely-manufactured, cheap material (Griffin). </li></ul>
    18. 18. References <ul><li>Ancoma, D., J. McVeigh. “Wind Turbine – Materials and Manufacturing Fact Sheet.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bronsted, P., H. Lilholt, A. Lystrup. “Composite Materials for Wind Turbine Blades.” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 2005. 35:505-38. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffin, D. “Cost/Performance Tradeoff for Carbon Fiber in Wind Turbine Blades.” Sandia Blade Technology Workshop . 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Hand, M. “Cost Prediction Tool for Onshore and Offshore Turbines.” SNL 2 nd Wind Turbine Blade Workshop . 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm, D.J., A.C. Hansen. “WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory Bulletin . 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Samborsky, D., Mandell, J.F. “Fatigue Resistant Fiberglass Laminates for Wind Turbine Blades.” Wind Energy . 1996. 46-51. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Rijswijk, K., H. Bersee. “Thermoplastic Composite Wind Turbine Blades.” Dutch Wind Workshops . Oct. 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaughn, C. “The Economics of Wind Energy.” Clipper Windpower, Inc. </li></ul>