0
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA probe DNA probe array tag...
Outline <ul><li>DNA Cloning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction En...
DNA Cloning <ul><li>Cloning   is the production of identical copies of DNA  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of a bacterial c...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><li>Recombinant DNA (rDNA) contains DNA from two or more different sources </li></ul><ul><u...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Cloning a Human Gene Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O f r o ...
Restriction Enzyme <ul><li>Cuts DNA at specific points. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaves vector (plasmid) and foreign (human) DNA...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
DNA Ligase <ul><li>Seals the foreign gene into the vector DNA  </li></ul><ul><li>Treated cells (bacteria) take up plasmids...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
DNA Cloning: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) <ul><li>Amplifies a targeted sequence of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create mil...
PCR Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. PCR cycles DNA copies fir...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Applications of PCR: Analyzing DNA Segments <ul><li>DNA fingerprinting  is the technique of using DNA fragment lengths </l...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
DNA Fingerprinting & Paternity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Biotechnology Products <ul><li>Genetically engineered organisms can produce biotechnology products. </li></ul><ul><li>Orga...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Transgenic Bacteria <ul><li>Gene of interest is inserted into bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are grown in large vats...
Transgenic Bacteria <ul><li>Transgenic bacteria promote plant health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria that colonize corn roo...
Genetically Engineered Bacteria Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displa...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Transgenic Plants <ul><li>Agricultural Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign genes now give cotton, corn, and potato strains...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Transgenic Animals <ul><li>Vortex Mixing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of animal eggs have taken up the gene for bovin...
Transgenic Mammals Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. human gene...
Transgenic Animals <ul><li>Researchers are using transgenic mice for various research projects.  </li></ul>Copyright © The...
Gene Therapy <ul><li>Gene therapy  involves procedures to give patients healthy genes to make up for a faulty gene. </li><...
Gene Therapy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Brain (gene tran...
Genomics <ul><li>Genomics is the study of genomes of humans and other organisms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing the Bases <...
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Genome - All the genetic information of an individual (or species) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of...
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Humans have 20,500 genes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most code for proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Eukaryotic Gene Structure <ul><li>Historically, genes were defined as discrete units of heredity that corresponded to a lo...
Chromosomal DNA Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. exon exon int...
Eukaryotic Gene Structure <ul><li>An Intergenic Sequences are DNA sequences that occur between genes </li></ul><ul><li>Rep...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Genomic Differences Between Species Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or di...
HapMap Project <ul><li>People inherit patterns of sequence differences, called haplotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If one hap...
Functional and Comparative Genomics <ul><li>Functional genomics aims to understand the role of genome in cells or organism...
DNA Microarray Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA...
Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is v...
Genetic Profile <ul><li>The complete genotype of an individual </li></ul><ul><li>This is the person’s genetic profile </li...
Proteomics <ul><li>The study of the structure, function, and interaction of cellular proteins </li></ul><ul><li>At least 2...
Bioinformatics <ul><li>The application of computer technologies to the study of the genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genomics ...
Bioinformatics Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. exon exon intr...
Review <ul><li>DNA Cloning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction Enz...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA probe DNA probe array tag...
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  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Biotechnology and Genomics Slide # Chapter 16
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Biotechnology and Genomics Slide # Chapter 16
  • Transcript of "14 Lecture Animation Ppt"

    1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA probe DNA probe array tagged DNA tagged DNA did bind to probe tagged DNA did not bind to probe testing subject's DNA
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>DNA Cloning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction Enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Ligase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgenic Bacteria, Plants, and Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gene Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics </li></ul>
    3. 3. DNA Cloning <ul><li>Cloning is the production of identical copies of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of a bacterial colony on a petri dish are clones because they all came from division of the same cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical twins are clones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single embryo separate to become two. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gene cloning is production of many identical copies of the same gene. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the inserted gene is replicated and expressed, we can recover the cloned gene or protein product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloned genes have many research purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans can be treated with gene therapy </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    5. 5. Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><li>Recombinant DNA (rDNA) contains DNA from two or more different sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A vector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>introduces rDNA into host cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmids (small accessory rings of DNA from bacteria) are common vectors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two enzymes are required to introduce foreign DNA into vector DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A restriction enzyme - cleaves DNA, and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A DNA ligase enzyme - seals DNA into an opening created by the restriction enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    7. 7. Cloning a Human Gene Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O f r o m a i 1. Restriction enzyme cleaves DNA. 2. DNA ligase seals human gene and plasmid. 3. Host cell takes up recombined plasmid. 4. Gene cloning occurs. bacterium recombinant DNA insulin human cell insulin gene human DNA plasmid
    8. 8. Restriction Enzyme <ul><li>Cuts DNA at specific points. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaves vector (plasmid) and foreign (human) DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaving DNA makes DNA fragments ending in short single-stranded segments with “sticky ends.” </li></ul><ul><li>The “sticky ends” allow insertion of foreign DNA into vector DNA. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA duplex &quot;sticky ends&quot; restriction enzyme A T A T A T A T A T C G C C G G C G A T A T A T A T A T C G C C G G C G
    9. 9. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    10. 10. DNA Ligase <ul><li>Seals the foreign gene into the vector DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Treated cells (bacteria) take up plasmids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria and plasmids reproduce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many copies of the plasmid and many copies of the foreign gene. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    12. 12. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    13. 13. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    14. 14. DNA Cloning: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) <ul><li>Amplifies a targeted sequence of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create millions of copies of a single gene or a specific piece of DNA in a test tube </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withstands the temperature necessary to separate double-stranded DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A supply of nucleotides for the new, complementary strand </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. PCR Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. PCR cycles DNA copies first 1 second 2 third 4 old old old strand new new new strand DNA double strand fourth 8 fifth 16 and so forth
    16. 16. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    17. 17. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    18. 18. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    19. 19. Applications of PCR: Analyzing DNA Segments <ul><li>DNA fingerprinting is the technique of using DNA fragment lengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat DNA segment with restriction enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A unique collection of different fragments is produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gel electrophoresis separates the fragments according to their charge/size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces distinctive banding pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually used to measure number of repeats of short sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Used in paternity suits, rape cases, corpse ID, etc. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    21. 21. DNA Fingerprinting & Paternity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mother Child Male 1 Male 2 Base repeat units many few DNA Band patterns Increasing size b. Automated DNA fingerprinting a. Fluorescence units
    22. 22. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    23. 23. Biotechnology Products <ul><li>Genetically engineered organisms can produce biotechnology products. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that have had a foreign gene inserted into them are transgenic . </li></ul>
    24. 24. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    25. 25. Transgenic Bacteria <ul><li>Gene of interest is inserted into bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are grown in large vats called bioreactors and product is harvested. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products on the market include insulin, hepatitis B vaccine, t-PA, and human growth hormone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transgenic bacteria can produce chemical products. </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic bacteria process minerals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals Collection </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Transgenic Bacteria <ul><li>Transgenic bacteria promote plant health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria that colonize corn roots can be endowed with genes for insect toxin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transgenic bacteria can degrade substances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil-Eating Bacteria </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Genetically Engineered Bacteria Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (Both): Courtesy General Electric Research & Development
    28. 28. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    29. 29. Transgenic Plants <ul><li>Agricultural Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign genes now give cotton, corn, and potato strains the ability to produce an insect toxin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soybeans are now resistant to a common herbicide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are being engineered to produce human proteins including hormones, clotting factors, and antibodies in their seeds </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    31. 31. Transgenic Animals <ul><li>Vortex Mixing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of animal eggs have taken up the gene for bovine growth hormone (bGH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The procedure has been used to produce larger fishes, cows, pigs, rabbits, and sheep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gene Pharming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes coding for therapeutic & diagnostic proteins are incorporated into an animal’s DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proteins appear in the animal’s milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans are to produce drugs to treat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood diseases, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Transgenic Mammals Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. human gene for growth hormone human growth hormone microinjection of human gene development within a host goat Transgenic goat produces human growth hormone. a. b. transgenic goat cells with gene for human growth hormone microinjection of transgenic gene into enucleated donor eggs donor of eggs donor of egg enucleated eggs Cloned transgenic goats produce human growth hormone. milk development within host goats milk
    33. 33. Transgenic Animals <ul><li>Researchers are using transgenic mice for various research projects. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. one-celled mouse embryos with two X chromosomes Embryo develops into a female. FEMALE Embryo develops into a male. MALE no injection inject SRY DNA
    34. 34. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Gene therapy involves procedures to give patients healthy genes to make up for a faulty gene. </li></ul><ul><li>It also includes the use of genes to treat genetic disorders and various human illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>There are ex vivo (outside body) and in vivo (inside body) methods of gene therapy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex Vivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Marrow Stem Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Vivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal / Respiratory Spray </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Gene Therapy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Brain (gene transfer by injection)* • Huntington disease • Alzheimer disease • Parkinson disease • brain tumors Skin (gene transfer by modified blood cells)** • skin cancer Lungs (gene transfer by aerosol spray)* • cystic fibrosis • hereditary emphysema Liver (gene transfer by modified implants)** • familial hypercholesterolemia Blood (gene transfer by bone marrow transplant)* • sickle-cell disease Muscle (gene transfer by injection)* • Duchenne muscular dystrophy Bone marrow (gene transfer by implantation of modified stem cells)** • SCID • sickle-cell disease Endothelium (blood vessel lining) (gene transfer by implantation of modified implants)** • hemophilia • diabetes mellitus * in vivo ** ex vivo
    36. 36. Genomics <ul><li>Genomics is the study of genomes of humans and other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing the Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Genome Project produced a working draft of all the base pairs in all chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took 13 years to sequence three billion base pairs along the length of chromosomes. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Genome - All the genetic information of an individual (or species) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of Human Genome Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the base pair sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a map showing sequence of genes on specific chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Humans have 20,500 genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most code for proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the human genome was formerly described as “junk” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not specify the order of amino acids in a polypeptide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent observation suggest that between 74% and 93% of the genome is transcribed into RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, vast junk DNA wasteland may be much more important than once thought </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Eukaryotic Gene Structure <ul><li>Historically, genes were defined as discrete units of heredity that corresponded to a locus on a chromosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes typically possess a single circular chromosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic chromosomes are much more complex. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Chromosomal DNA Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. exon exon intron intron exon exon intergenic sequences DNA pre-mRNA RNA introns Gene A Gene B Gene C Gene A mRNA Gene B mRNA Gene C mRNA © Cindy Charles/PhotoEdit 5  3  5  3  3  5 
    41. 41. Eukaryotic Gene Structure <ul><li>An Intergenic Sequences are DNA sequences that occur between genes </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive DNA elements occur when the same sequence of two or more nucleotides are repeated many times along the length of one or more chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Transposons are specific DNA sequences that have the remarkable ability to move within and between chromosomes . </li></ul>
    42. 42. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    43. 43. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    44. 44. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    45. 45. Genomic Differences Between Species Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    46. 46. HapMap Project <ul><li>People inherit patterns of sequence differences, called haplotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If one haplotype of a person has an A rather than a G at a particular location in a chromosome, there are probably other particular base differences near the A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic data from African, Asian, and European populations will be analyzed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A HapMap is a catalog common sequence differences that occur in a species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of the project is to link haplotypes to risk for specific illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to new methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Functional and Comparative Genomics <ul><li>Functional genomics aims to understand the role of genome in cells or organisms </li></ul><ul><li>DNA microarrays can monitor the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously and tell us: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What genes are turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions that turn on the gene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA microarrays contain microscopic amounts of known DNA fixed onto a small glass slide </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA bind through complementary base pairing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA is produced by active cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify various mutations in the genome of an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called the person’s genetic profile. </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. DNA Microarray Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA probe DNA probe array tagged DNA tagged DNA did bind to probe tagged DNA did not bind to probe testing subject's DNA
    49. 49. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    50. 50. Genetic Profile <ul><li>The complete genotype of an individual </li></ul><ul><li>This is the person’s genetic profile </li></ul><ul><li>A way of studying how genes work together to control the phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the genetic profile of many individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare their profiles to their phenotypes </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Proteomics <ul><li>The study of the structure, function, and interaction of cellular proteins </li></ul><ul><li>At least 25,000 of our genes are translated into proteins </li></ul><ul><li>The sum total of these proteins is called the human proteome </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding protein function is essential to the development of better drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlate drug treatment to the particular genome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency and decrease side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the primary structure of these protein is known </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should be possible to predict their tertiary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer modeling of the tertiary of these proteins is an important part of proteomics </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Bioinformatics <ul><li>The application of computer technologies to the study of the genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genomics and proteomics produce raw data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These fields depend on computer analysis to find significant patterns in the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists hope to find relationships between genetic profiles and genetic disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New computational tools will be needed to accomplish these goals </li></ul>
    53. 53. Bioinformatics Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. exon exon intron intron exon exon intergenic sequences DNA pre-mRNA RNA introns Gene A Gene B Gene C Gene A mRNA Gene B mRNA Gene C mRNA 5  3  5  3  3  5 
    54. 54. Review <ul><li>DNA Cloning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction Enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Ligase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology Products </li></ul><ul><li>Gene Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics </li></ul>
    55. 55. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. DNA probe DNA probe array tagged DNA tagged DNA did bind to probe tagged DNA did not bind to probe testing subject's DNA
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