Chapter 43 By Ben Karlsberg
Compliment system <ul><li>Consists of roughly 30 proteins in blood plasma that function together to fight infections </li>...
 
Inflammatory response <ul><li>Swelling from a wound </li></ul><ul><li>Histamine (chemical signal) released from mast cells...
 
Natural Killer Cell <ul><li>Kills cells that don’t express class I MHC protein because infected cells often lose this prot...
 
Lymphocytes <ul><li>T-cells are lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to the thymus to mature </li></ul><ul><li>B-cell...
Immunoglobulin (antibody) <ul><li>Recognize epitopes (antigenic determinant) of antigens and bind to them </li></ul><ul><l...
5 classes of antibodies
Major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules <ul><li>Class I MHC display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T-cells </li></ul><ul><...
Short and long term responses <ul><li>Effector cells- attack antigen instantly –short living </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cell...
 
Helper T-cells <ul><li>Make CD4 (surface protein that enhances binding to class II MHC molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Activa...
Cytotoxic T-cells <ul><li>Make CD8, enhances binding to Class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Activated- secrete proteins that ini...
B-cells <ul><li>Clonal selection of B-cells generates antibody-secreting plasma cells </li></ul><ul><li>Binding of antibod...
Autoimmune disease <ul><li>HIV- destroys helper t-cells </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS – Acquired Immunodificiency syndrome interf...
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Chapter 43 ap bio

  1. 1. Chapter 43 By Ben Karlsberg
  2. 2. Compliment system <ul><li>Consists of roughly 30 proteins in blood plasma that function together to fight infections </li></ul><ul><li>Activated by substances on the surfaces of microbes </li></ul>
  3. 4. Inflammatory response <ul><li>Swelling from a wound </li></ul><ul><li>Histamine (chemical signal) released from mast cells (connective tissue cells that store chemicals in granules for secretion) </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries widen and phagocytes are released </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris as tissue heals </li></ul>
  4. 6. Natural Killer Cell <ul><li>Kills cells that don’t express class I MHC protein because infected cells often lose this protein </li></ul>
  5. 8. Lymphocytes <ul><li>T-cells are lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to the thymus to mature </li></ul><ul><li>B-cells mature in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines are released by phagocytic cells to activate and recruit lymphocytes </li></ul>
  6. 9. Immunoglobulin (antibody) <ul><li>Recognize epitopes (antigenic determinant) of antigens and bind to them </li></ul><ul><li>Very specific </li></ul><ul><li>B-cells recognize epitopes in intact antigens </li></ul><ul><li>T-cells recognize epitopes in small antigen fragments </li></ul>
  7. 10. 5 classes of antibodies
  8. 11. Major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules <ul><li>Class I MHC display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T-cells </li></ul><ul><li>Class II MHC display antigens to helper T-cells </li></ul>
  9. 12. Short and long term responses <ul><li>Effector cells- attack antigen instantly –short living </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cells- bear receptors specific for an antigen- long living </li></ul>
  10. 14. Helper T-cells <ul><li>Make CD4 (surface protein that enhances binding to class II MHC molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Activated helper t-cells secrete different cytokines that stimulate other lymphocytes </li></ul>
  11. 15. Cytotoxic T-cells <ul><li>Make CD8, enhances binding to Class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Activated- secrete proteins that initiate destruction of target cells </li></ul>
  12. 16. B-cells <ul><li>Clonal selection of B-cells generates antibody-secreting plasma cells </li></ul><ul><li>Binding of antibodies to antigens leads to elimination by phagocytosis and compliment-mediated lysis </li></ul>
  13. 17. Autoimmune disease <ul><li>HIV- destroys helper t-cells </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS – Acquired Immunodificiency syndrome interferes with cell communicated defenses </li></ul>
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