Chapter 43 ap bio
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Chapter 43 ap bio

on

  • 1,479 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,479
Views on SlideShare
1,479
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chapter 43 ap bio Chapter 43 ap bio Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 43 By Ben Karlsberg
  • Compliment system
    • Consists of roughly 30 proteins in blood plasma that function together to fight infections
    • Activated by substances on the surfaces of microbes
  •  
  • Inflammatory response
    • Swelling from a wound
    • Histamine (chemical signal) released from mast cells (connective tissue cells that store chemicals in granules for secretion)
    • Capillaries widen and phagocytes are released
    • Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris as tissue heals
  •  
  • Natural Killer Cell
    • Kills cells that don’t express class I MHC protein because infected cells often lose this protein
  •  
  • Lymphocytes
    • T-cells are lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to the thymus to mature
    • B-cells mature in bone marrow
    • Cytokines are released by phagocytic cells to activate and recruit lymphocytes
  • Immunoglobulin (antibody)
    • Recognize epitopes (antigenic determinant) of antigens and bind to them
    • Very specific
    • B-cells recognize epitopes in intact antigens
    • T-cells recognize epitopes in small antigen fragments
  • 5 classes of antibodies
  • Major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules
    • Class I MHC display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T-cells
    • Class II MHC display antigens to helper T-cells
  • Short and long term responses
    • Effector cells- attack antigen instantly –short living
    • Memory cells- bear receptors specific for an antigen- long living
  •  
  • Helper T-cells
    • Make CD4 (surface protein that enhances binding to class II MHC molecules)
    • Activated helper t-cells secrete different cytokines that stimulate other lymphocytes
  • Cytotoxic T-cells
    • Make CD8, enhances binding to Class I MHC
    • Activated- secrete proteins that initiate destruction of target cells
  • B-cells
    • Clonal selection of B-cells generates antibody-secreting plasma cells
    • Binding of antibodies to antigens leads to elimination by phagocytosis and compliment-mediated lysis
  • Autoimmune disease
    • HIV- destroys helper t-cells
    • AIDS – Acquired Immunodificiency syndrome interferes with cell communicated defenses