Kerja khusus
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Kerja khusus

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Kerja khusus Kerja khusus Document Transcript

  • Virus komputer Computer Virus <br />Dari Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas. From the Malay Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. <br />Lompat ke: pandu arah , gelintar Jump to: HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3gRknxSG6alSqzSnr4imqEauh3w" l " column-one" navigation , search <br />Untuk kegunaan lain, sila lihat: Virus (nyahkekaburan) . For other uses, see HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_(nyahkekaburan)&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjwjOadDaX-r66xKw4xG4xT50HRiw" o " Virus (disambiguation)" Virus (disambiguation) . <br />Virus komputer adalah nama yang diambil dari virus biologi , merupakan program komputer yang berupaya menyalin dirinya sendiri dan menjangkiti komputer tanpa kebenaran ataupun pengetahuan pengguna. Computer virus is a name taken from the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg5t86jCPSWoGtqGPUCsA42TzVGiw" o " Virus" virus biology, a computer program which can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. Bagaimanapun perkataan virus biasanya digunakan bagi merujuk kepada pelbagai jenis perisian perosak yang berlainan. However, the word virus is usually used to refer to a variety of different types of malware. Virus yang asal mungkin mengubah suai salinannya atau salinan itu sendiri yang mengubah suai dirinya, seperti dalam virus metamorf . The original virus may modify a copy or copies of itself that modifies itself, as in the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kod_metamorf&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiN9OymmbG4l7YIGP_0k_zwH04V8g" o " Metamorphic Code" metamorphic virus . Virus hanya boleh tersebar apabila hosnya sampai ke komputer lain, contohnya melalui rangkaian atau perantara mudah alih seperti cakera liut , cakera padat atau pemacu kilat USB . The virus can only spread when the hose up to another computer, for example through mobile networks or intermediaries such as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cakera_liut&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi4yscpa9ncEjgE3XGaBn8464Oe_w" o " Floppy Disk" floppy disks , compact disks or USB flash drive . Selain itu, virus juga boleh merebak dengan menjangkiti fail pada sistem fail rangkaian atau mana-mana sistem fail yang dicapai komputer lain. In addition, the virus can also spread by infecting files on HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_fail&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgnHT3jz5lckwqX4epG8nve-GVLfw" l " sistem_fail_rangkaian" o " File System" a network file system or any system files accessible computer. <br />Sesetengah virus direka untuk menjejaskan komputer dengan merosakkan atur cara , menghapuskan fail, atau memformat semula cakera keras , manakala virus-virus yang lain direka bukan untuk merosakkan apa-apa, tetapi hanya untuk menyalin diri dan mungkin untuk menonjolkan kewujudannya melalui pemaparan teks, video, atau pesanan audio. Some viruses are designed to affect the computer by damaging HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atur_cara&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhb4CcIOVROrSq-XTQVUDDFD3tN2g" o " Program" programs , delete files, or reformatting the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cakera_keras&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjuax5HnHOmJX9DttA3vGEiZp8MbQ" o " Hard disk" hard disk , while other viruses are designed not to damage anything, but only to copy themselves and perhaps to highlight its existence through the presentation of text, video, or audio messages. Walaupun virus yang kedua ini tidak berbahaya, ia juga boleh menimbulkan masalah kepada pengguna komputer kerana ia menelan ingatan komputer yang digunakan oleh atur cara yang sah. Although the virus is not dangerous, it can also cause problems for computer users because it cost HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storan_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhj6TNmFX9UUJeoWRD45YnON45idGw" o " Computer storage" computer memory used by legitimate programs. Oleh yang demikian, ia seringnya mengakibatkan tindakan yang tidak menentu dan boleh mengakibatkan kerosakan sistem. As such, it often lead to uncertainty and may cause damage to the system. Selain itu, banyak virus juga mengandungi pepijat yang boleh mengakibatkan kerosakan sistem dan kehilangan data . In addition, many viruses also contain HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepijat&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhihANBDmiHz70J4IyVxh4Mj2i3BUA" o " Bug" a bug that can cause damage to systems and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DKehilangan_data%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi19dJSaLWhK3_dCgLr1VZEnGfCsA" o " Loss of data (not present)" data loss . <br />Virus komputer kekadangnya dikelirukan dengan cecacing komputer dan kuda Trojan . Computer viruses sometimes confused with HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecacing_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgBMEnZfKCEwsDl1CJHBbbodJScuw" o " Computer Worm" computer worms and Trojan horses . Kedua-dua ini berbeza dari segi bahawa cecacing boleh merebak ke komputer yang lain tanpa memerlukannya dipindahkan sebagai sebahagian fail perumah, manakala kuda Trojan adalah fail yang kelihatan tidak berbahaya sehingga dilaksanakan. Both are different in that the worm can spread to other computers without the need transferred as part of the host file, while the Trojan horse is a file that looks harmless until executed. Berbeza dengan virus, kuda Trojan juga tidak memasukkan kodnya ke dalam fail-fail komputer yang lain. Unlike viruses, Trojan horse does not insert its code into the files of other computers. <br />Banyak komputer peribadi kini dihubungkan dengan internet serta rangkaian kawasan setempat dan dengan itu, memudahkan perebakan virus. Many PCs are now connected to the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhh-XeyRNZdk-klfz40j1IxH0gzZAg" o " Internet" Internet and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DRangkaian_kawasan_setempat%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhTOSeXnObJQF8OTr9tJf7HD9oVUg" o " Local area network (not present)" local area network and therefore, facilitate the spread of the virus. Ia mengambil kesempatan yang diberikan oleh perkhidmatan rangkaian seperti sistem-sistem Jaringan Sejagat , e-mel , dan pengongsian fail untuk merebak dan dengan itu, mengaburi perbezaan antara virus dengan cecacing komputer. He took the opportunity provided by the network services such as systems, HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaringan_Sejagat&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhQUKbiq6NSSMkb-lMq4sCAxLJBiQ" o " World Wide Web" World Wide Web , e-mail , and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPengongsian_fail%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhglWCyNa47fg-7txN4oNz0aa0UhcA" o " Sharing files (not exist)" file sharing to spread and thereby obscure the difference between a virus and computer worm. Tambahan pula, sesetengah sumber menggunakan istilah alternatif yang mentakrifkan virus sebagai mana-mana bentuk perisian jahat penyalinan diri. Furthermore, some sources use an alternative term that defines a virus as any of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perisian_jahat&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiBkMdpW5OYwaVz4td2rQYXUUz32w" o " Malicious software" a malicious self-replication. <br />Isi kandungan Contents [sorok]1 Etimologi 1 Etymology 2 Mengapa orang mencipta virus komputer 2 Why do people create computer virus 3 Strategi penyalinan 3 replication strategy 3.1 Virus bukan huni Virus 3.1 is not homeless 3.2 Virus huni 3.2 Virus homeless 4 Vektor dan perumah 4 Vector and host 4.1 Vektor-vektor yang tidak sesuai dihuni 4.1 Vector-vector is not suitable occupied 5 Kaedah untuk mengelakkan pengesanan 5 Methods to avoid detection 5.1 Mengelakkan fail umpan dan lain-lain 5.1 Avoiding bait files and other 5.2 Cara sembunyi-sembunyi 5.2 How to stealth 5.3 Pengubahsuaian diri 5.3 Modification of self- 5.3.1 Pengekodan dengan petunjuk berubah-ubah 5.3.1 Encoding with variable guide 5.3.2 Kod polimorf 5.3.2 Polymorphic code 5.3.3 Kod metamorf 5.3.3 Metamorphic code 6 Kerentanan sistem pengendalian 6 operating system vulnerability 7 Langkah balas 7 Step response 7.1 Peranan pembangunan perisian 7.1 The role of software development 7.2 Perisian anti-virus dan langkah balas pencegahan 7.2 anti-virus software and preventive countermeasures 7.3 Kaedah pemulihan 7.3 Method recovery 7.3.1 Pemulihan data 7.3.1 Data Recovery 7.3.2 Penghapusan virus 7.3.2 Elimination of virus 7.3.3 Pemasangan semula sistem pengendalian 7.3.3 Installing the operating system 8 Lihat juga 8 See also 9 Pautan luar 9 External links <br />[ sunting ] Etimologi [ edit ] Etymology <br />Istilah " virus" komputer berasal daripada perkataan virus biologi dan digunakan dalam erti kata yang sama. The term " virus" is derived from the computer and biological viruses used in the same sense. Istilah " virus" seringnya digunakan dalam bahasa biasa untuk menghuraikan semua jenis perisian jahat ( malware ), termasuk virus-virus yang wajar dikelaskan sebagai cecacing atau kuda Troy . The term " virus" is often used in ordinary language to describe all types of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perisian_perosak&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiLx5rBNgO6-fzCvbxWBR8RUfygsw" o " Malware" malicious software (malware), including viruses should be classified as a HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecacing_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgBMEnZfKCEwsDl1CJHBbbodJScuw" o " Computer Worm" worm or HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuda_Troy_(komputer)&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhWj1U2p3PzW96izSCbWaukoUGVrA" o " Trojan Horse (computer)" Trojan horse . Kebanyakan pakej perisian anti-virus yang popular melindungi komputer daripada semua jenis serangan ini. Most of the package HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPerisian_anti-virus%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjzsZ2KBWYI1Be82x_crj8Mb_aR0w" o " Anti-virus software (not present)" of anti-virus software that protects computers from all popular types of attack. Dalam sesetengah komuniti teknik, istilah " virus" juga diperluas untuk merangkumi para pencipta perisian jahat dari segi erti kata yang menghina. In some of the technical community, the term " virus" is also expanded to include the creator of malicious software in the sense of humiliation. <br />Istilah " virus" digunakan buat pertama kali dalam terbitan akademik oleh Fred Cohen pada tahun 1984 dalam kertas kerjanya, Uji kajian dengan Virus Komputer , yang menghargai Len Adleman kerana mencipta istilah itu. The term " virus" is used for the first time in the academic issue by HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DFred_Cohen%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhdB7E2GyCSsxc3AkTYA-_uHb3oNQ" o " Fred Cohen (does not exist)" Fred Cohen in 1984 in his paper, the study of Computer Virus Test, the appreciation of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DLen_Adleman%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg0_WkDDTKFR5uJKohG0_8nsPEFtg" o " Len Adleman (not present)" Len Adleman for creating the term. Bagaimanapun, sebuah novel fiksyen sains yang ditulis oleh David Gerrold pada tahun 1972 yang berjudul " When HARLIE Was One" , mengandungi sebuah huraian atur cara komputer fiksyen yang dipanggil " VIRUS" yang bertindak tepat sama dengan virus biologi (dan diatasi oleh sebuah atur cara yang dipanggil " VAKSIN" ). However, a science fiction novel written by David Gerrold in the year HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjrs0bUScA_6942bLYF7jByYAxkzA" o " In 1972" 1972 , entitled " When HARLIE Was One" , containing a description of a fictional computer program called " VIRUS" is acting exactly the same as biological viruses (and addressed by a program that called " vaccine" ). Istilah " virus komputer" dengan pengertian terkini juga muncul dalam buku komik, Uncanny X-Men #158, yang ditulis oleh Chris Claremont dan diterbitkan pada tahun 1982 . The term " computer virus" with current understanding also appeared in comic books, Uncanny X-Men # 158, written by Chris Claremont, and was published in HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiG8TWwaKjp51Dw18pWtHbbBoBR2Q" o " 1982" 1982 . Oleh yang demikian, walaupun penggunaan istilah " virus" oleh Cohen mungkin merupakan penggunaan " ilmiah" yang pertama, istilah itu telah digunakan lebih dahulu. Thus, although the use of the term " virus" by Cohen may be the use of " scientific" first, the term was used first. <br />[ sunting ] Mengapa orang mencipta virus komputer [ edit ] Why do people create computer virus <br />Berbeza dengan virus biologi, virus komputer: Unlike biological viruses, computer viruses: <br />tidak mengembangkan diri; not to participate; <br />tidak wujud secara spontan dan tidak dicipta oleh pepijat atur cara biasa; ia dicipta secara sengaja oleh para pengaturcara atau orang yang menggunakan perisian mencipta virus; dan does not exist spontaneously and was not created by the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepijat&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhihANBDmiHz70J4IyVxh4Mj2i3BUA" o " Bug" bug program normal; it was created intentionally by the programmer, he who creates virus software and <br />hanya boleh membuat apa-apa yang ditetapkan oleh pengaturcara. can only make such a set by the programmer. <br />Para pencipta virus mempunyai berbagai-bagai alasan untuk mencipta dan menyebarkan perisian jahat. The virus creators have various reasons to create and distribute malicious software. Virus-virus telah dicipta sebagai projek penyelidikan, usikan, dan laku musnah, serta juga untuk menyerang produk syarikat-syarikat tertentu, menyebarkan pesanan politik, dan memperoleh keuntungan daripada pencurian identiti , perisian pengintipan ( spyware ), dan pemerasan kriptovirus . Viruses have been created as a research project, harassment, and vandalism, as well as to attack a particular product companies, spreading political messages, and gain profit from HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPencurian_identiti%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhinZsnHC5vVkTSw-rp2RBwdHKrxfw" o " Identity theft (not present)" identity theft , espionage software (spyware), and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DKriptovirologi%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhidG5S49ti9-2Si33oJiQsBaUG_uQ" o " Kriptovirologi (not present)" extortion kriptovirus . <br />Sesetengah penulis virus menganggap ciptaan mereka sebagai seni, dan melihat penulisan atur cara virus sebagai suatu hobi yang kreatif. Some virus writers consider their creations as art, and saw the writing program viruses as a creative hobby. Tambahan pula, banyak penulis virus menentang rutin-rutin yang ditulis semata-mata untuk melakukan pemusnahan. In addition, many virus writers oppose routines written solely to make destruction. Selain itu, banyak penulis virus juga menganggap sistem-sistem yang diserang oleh mereka sebagai suatu cabaran intelektual atau satu masalah logik untuk diselesaikan. In addition, many virus writers also consider the systems attacked by them as an intellectual challenge or a logic problem to solve. Ini berganda apabila permainan kucing dengan tikus itu terhadap perisian anti-virus dijangka. These double as a cat with a mouse game against the anti-virus software is expected. <br />Sesetengah virus bertujuan untuk merupakan " virus baik" . Some of the virus to a " good virus" . Ia menyebarkan perbaikan kepada atur-atur cara yang dijangkitinya, atau menghapuskan virus-virus yang lain. They spread improvements to programs dijangkitinya way, or delete other viruses. Walaupun demikian, virus-virus sebegini adalah agak jarang. However, these viruses are relatively rare. Ia masih menelan sumber sistem, dan mungkin akan menjejaskan sistem yang dijangkitinya tanpa sengaja serta juga kekadangnya dijangkiti oleh virus yang lain dan bertindak pula sebagai vektor untuk virus jahat. It still cost the system resources, and may affect the system dijangkitinya accidentally and sometimes also infected with other viruses and also act as vectors for malicious viruses. Tanpa disengajakan, atur-atur cara " virus baik" yang tidak ditulis dengan teliti juga boleh menjadi virus yang mendatangkan keburukan pada dirinya (umpamanya, 'virus baik' yang sebegini boleh salah mengecam fail sasaran dan dengan itu, salah menghapuskan fail sistem). Inadvertently, program-program " good virus" that is not written properly can be harmful virus itself (eg, 'good virus' that this can either identify the target file and therefore, is to delete the file system). Tambahan pula, ia biasanya bertindak tanpa meminta sebarang kebenaran daripada pemilik komputer. In addition, it usually acts without asking any permission from the owner of the computer. Oleh sebab kod penyalinan diri menimbulkan banyak kerumitan, adakah sesuatu virus yang bertujuan baik boleh menyelesaikan masalah dengan cara yang lebih baik, berbanding dengan atur cara biasa yang tidak menyalin diri, boleh dipersoalkan. Because the self-copying code raises a lot of complexity, is a virus that seeks better ways to solve problems better than the usual programs that do not copy themselves, be questioned. <br />Dengan pendek kata, tidak adanya satu jawapan yang tunggal yang mungkin merangkumi seluruh demografi penulis virus yang begitu luas. With short, there is no one single answer that may include the demographic vast virus writers. Dalam kebanyakan bidang kuasa, pembebasan virus komputer (serta juga cecacing) merupakan suatu jenayah komputer . In most jurisdictions, the release of computer viruses (as well as worms) is a HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jenayah_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhj2kil4TW6KvYQGO48NiKd-FoL7aw" o " Computer crime" computer crime . Sila lihat juga rencana Berita BBC: Mengapa orang mencipta virus komputer. Please see also the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3172967.stm&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi3mnXf90htmV4VSCIDH37g5yI7fQ" BBC News article: " Why do people create computer viruses. <br />[ sunting ] Strategi penyalinan [ edit ] Strategy copying <br />Supaya dapat menyalin diri, virus harus dibenarkan untuk melaksanakan kodnya dan menulis pada ingatan. In order to copy itself, the virus should be allowed to perform and write code in memory. Atas alasan ini, banyak virus melekat pada fail boleh laku yang merupakan sebahagian atur cara yang sah. For this reason, many viruses attached to the file HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBoleh_laku%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgSEUnYU17MG6Nv7dpMerIOXHtMZQ" o " Executable (not present)" executable that is a valid program. Jika seseorang pengguna mencuba melaksanakan atur cara yang terjangkit, kod virus akan dilaksanakan lebih dahulu. If a user tries to execute a program is infected, the virus code will be executed first. <br />Virus-virus boleh dibahagikan kepada dua jenis, bersandarkan tindakannya apabila dilaksanakan: Viruses can be divided into two types, based on his actions when executed: <br />Virus bukan huni dengan serta-merta akan mencari-cari perumah yang lain yang boleh dijangkiti dan selepas menjangkitinya, akan memindahkan kawalan kepada atur- atur cara penggunaan yang terjangkit. Viruses are not homeless immediately to look for another host can be infected and after menjangkitinya, will transfer control to the program- HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perisian_penggunaan&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgzaT53QTPzPUF6MXc2yPXWsswtTg" o " Application software" program use of the infected. <br />Virus huni tidak mencari perumah apabila ia dilaksanakan tetapi sebaliknya, memuat diri ke dalam ingatan dan memindahkan kawalannya kepada atur cara perumah. Virus homeless find housing when they are not implemented, but instead, load themselves into memory and transfers control to the program host. Virus huni masih tetap aktif di latar belakang dan akan menjangkiti perumah-perumah yang baru apabila fail-fail itu dicapai oleh atur cara yang lain atau oleh sistem pengendalian pada dirinya. Virus homeless still active in the background and will infect a new host-host the files is accessed by other programs or the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_pengendalian&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiv-eMEDprrL2tabeddlAOTgLWNXQ" o " Operating system" operating system itself. <br />[ sunting ] Virus bukan huni [ edit ] The virus is not homeless <br />Virus bukan huni boleh dianggap sebagai terdiri daripada dua modul, iaitu " modul pencarian" dan " modul penyalinan" . Viruses are not considered homeless as consisting of two modules, namely " the search module" and " replication module. Modul pencarian bertanggungjawab untuk mencari fail baru untuk dijangkiti. Search module is responsible for finding new files to infect. Bagi setiap fail boleh laku yang baru yang ditemukan, modul pencarian akan memanggil modul penyalinan untuk menjangkiti fail itu. For each new executable file is found, the search module will be called the replication module to infect that file. <br />Untuk virus-virus yang mudah, tugas-tugas penyalin adalah seperti yang berikut: For virus-virus tools, copier tasks is as follows: <br />Menyemak adakah fail boleh laku itu telah dijangkiti (jika ia, kembali ke modul pencarian); Check whether the executable file is infected (if it is, return to the search module); <br />Melampirkan kod virus pada fail boleh laku; Attaching the virus code in executable file; <br />Simpan titik permulaan fail boleh laku; Save the starting point for executable files; <br />Tukarkan titik permulaan fail boleh laku supaya ia menunjuk ke lokasi permulaan kod virus yang baru sahaja disalin; Change the starting point for executable files so that they point to the location of the beginning of a new virus code only copied; <br />Simpan lokasi permulaan yang lama supaya virus akan menyimpang ke lokasi itu selepas ia dilaksanakan; Save the old start location to the virus will depart to the location after it is implemented; <br />Simpan perubahan dalam fail boleh laku; Save changes in executable files; <br />Tutup fail yang terjangkit; dan Closing the file infected and <br />Kembali ke modul pencarian supaya ia boleh mencari fail yang baru untuk dijangkiti oleh penyalin. Back to the search module so that it can find new files to be infected by the copyist. <br />[ sunting ] Virus huni [ edit ] Virus homeless <br />Virus huni mengandungi modul penyalinan yang serupa dengan modul yang digunakan oleh virus bukan huni, tetapi ia tidak digelar sebagai modul pencarian . Homeless virus replication module contains a module similar to that used by the virus are not homeless, but it is not known as a search module. Sebaliknya, virus ini memuat modul penyalinan ke dalam ingatan apabila ia dilaksanakan dan memastikan bahawa modul ini akan dilaksanakan setiap kali sistem pengendalian dipanggil untuk melakukan tugas-tugas yang tertentu, umpamanya apabila sistem pengendalian itu melaksanakan sesuatu fail. In contrast, virus replication module load into HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingatan_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgvs83XpMqYrO0YuKTdYO2mzSWoHA" o " Computer Memory" memory when it is implemented and to ensure that the module will be executed each time the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_pengendalian&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiv-eMEDprrL2tabeddlAOTgLWNXQ" o " Operating system" operating system is called to perform certain tasks, such as operating systems that implement a file. Dalam kes ini, virus itu akan menjangkiti setiap atur cara yang sesuai yang dilaksanakan oleh komputer. In this case, the virus will infect all the appropriate program implemented by the computer. <br />Virus-virus huni kekadang dibahagikan kepada dua kategori, iaitu penjangkit cepat dan penjangkit lambat . Viruses homeless sometimes divided into two categories, namely fast and Agencies Agencies slow. Penjangkit cepat direka untuk menjangkiti sebanyak fail yang mungkin, umpamanya ia boleh menjangkiti setiap fail perumah yang dicapai. Agencies quickly designed to infect a file that may be, for example, it can infect every host file reached. Ini akan menimbulkan masalah yang khusus untuk perisian anti-virus kerana pengimbas virus akan mencapai setiap fail perumah yang berpotensi di dalam komputer apabila ia mengimbas seluruh sistem. This will create problems specific to HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPerisian_anti-virus%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjzsZ2KBWYI1Be82x_crj8Mb_aR0w" o " Anti-virus software (not present)" anti-virus software for virus scanning will reach every potential host file on the computer when they scan the entire system. Jika pengimbas virus gagal mengesan virus sebegitu yang wujud di dalam ingatan, virus itu boleh " menggendong" pengimbas virus dan dengan itu, menjangkiti semua fail yang diimbas. If the virus scanner fails to detect such a virus present in memory, the virus can " carry" the virus scanner and with it to infect all scanned files. Penjangkit cepat bergantung kepada kadar penjangkitannya yang cepat untuk merebak. Agencies quickly depending on the rate penjangkitannya quick to spread. Kelemahan kaedah ini adalah bahawa penjangkitan banyak fail akan menyebabkannya mudah dikesan kerana virus itu akan memperlahankan komputer atau melakukan banyak tindakan yang menimbulkan kesangsian yang boleh dikesan oleh perisian anti-virus. The weakness of this method is that the infection will cause a lot of files easily detected because the virus will slow down the computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be detected by anti-virus software. <br />Penjangkit lambat sebaliknya direka untuk menjangkiti perumahnya sekali sekala. Agencies slow but designed to infect the host once in a while. Umpamanya, sesetengah penjangkit lambat hanya menjangkiti fail apabila fail itu disalin. For example, some slow Agencies only infect files when the file is copied. Penjangkit lambat direka semata-mata untuk mengelakkan pengesanan dengan membatasi tindakannya. Agencies slow designed solely to avoid detection by limiting their action. Ia tidak banyak memperlahankan komputer dan jarang mencetuskan perisian anti-virus yang mengesan tindakan atur cara yang menimbulkan kesangsian. It does not much slow down the computer and rarely lead to anti-virus software that detects the action program that raises suspicion. Walaupun demikian, pendekatan penjangkit lambat kelihatan tidak begitu berjaya. However, the approach does not seem to slow Agencies so successful. <br />[ sunting ] Vektor dan perumah [ edit ] Vector and host <br />Virus-virus telah menyasarkan berbagai-bagai jenis medium penghantaran atau perumah. Viruses have targeted various types of transmission medium or the host. Senarai yang berikut adalah tidak lengkap: The following list is not exhaustive: <br />Fail boleh laku perduaan, seperti fail COM dan fail EXE untuk MS-DOS , fail Boleh Laku Mudah Alih untuk Microsoft Windows , dan fail ELF untuk Linux; File executable binary, such as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DFail_COM%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg62WgPsa3lzfr20cVtZG4qoxm8yw" o " COM files (not exist)" COM files and files HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DEXE%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgxHRxVfTAlv4e2vC_mPzdHwMAmig" o " EXE (not present)" EXE for HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhh_O_zW6vy4FptObEYxDmDfjToQfg" o " MS-DOS" MS-DOS , the file HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBoleh_Laku_Mudah_Alih%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3xJ26K-rm0SC8GFz3oB6U64LXWA" o " Callers can Portability (not present)" may Behavior Mobile for Microsoft Windows , and File HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DFormat_Boleh_Laku_dan_Boleh_Paut%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhPqGciI6r_hZpPsISuPAh1x3WSkA" o " Can format and can link the caller (not there)" ELF for Linux; <br />Rekod But Jilid untuk cakera liut dan petak cakera keras ; Volume Boot Record to the floppy disk drive and the box HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cakera_keras&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjuax5HnHOmJX9DttA3vGEiZp8MbQ" o " Hard disk" 's hard drive ; <br />Rekod but induk (MBR) untuk cakera keras; Master boot record (MBR) for hard drives; <br />Fail skrip serba guna, seperti fail kelompok untuk MS-DOS dan Microsoft Windows , fail VBSkrip , serta juga skrip cangkerang untuk pelantar bak Unix ; File scenario versatile, such as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fail_kelompok&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhjmu3SKYhhYtVlG1cAg6I_XCtOnw" o " Batch file" batch files for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows , the files HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DVBSkrip%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhh_qXG8vdQVm-8Qjwzlc46VScfkTQ" o " VBSkrip (not present)" VBSkrip , as well as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DSkrip_cangkerang%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhj5B9r_sKE7Efat5JrvahB3hNdoKw" o " Shell script (not present)" a shell script for platforms HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBak_Unix%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhOCf8rpTXhpQ4xBBAOW9dd-smLcA" o " Unix-like (not present)" like Unix ; <br />Fail skrip khusus atur cara penggunaan , seperti skrip Telix ; Specific script file HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DAtur_cara_penggunaan%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiTTjq6rPEsAPo66L08FSJRS1hhXw" o " Program use (not present)" using a program such as scripts HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DTelix%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg2QpACO9OlZnlMwX8cl6B6QU6lOg" o " Telix (not present)" Telix ; <br />Dokumen yang boleh mengandungi makro , seperti dokumen Microsoft Word , hamparan Microsoft Excel , dokumen AmiPro , dan fail pangkalan data Microsoft Access ; dan Documents can contain HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DMakro%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgVjOEX83gWY50mL7HNVZV0QLHYSA" o " Macro (not present)" macros , such as document HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Word&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiHNrJdalAuDQJtV4_iDzkRJFV3bg" o " Microsoft Word" Microsoft Word , spreadsheet Microsoft Excel , document AmiPro , and file HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangkalan_data&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjxd20bBlcW5HnTp7XBFel5UIxZfg" o " Database" databases Microsoft Access and <br />Kerentanan penskripan tapak silang untuk penggunaan web. Susceptibility HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPenskripan_tapak_silang%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiyEt5l083JrWYRS-qlgr3_wDNarA" o " Cross-site scripting (not present)" cross-site scripting to web applications. <br />[ sunting ] Vektor-vektor yang tidak sesuai dihuni [ edit ] Vector-vector is not suitable occupied <br />Adalah susah, walaupun bukan tidak mungkin, bagi virus-virus mengekori fail sumber kerana bahasa- bahasa komputer dicipta juga untuk mata manusia dan operator-operator yang berpengalaman. It is difficult, though not impossible, for viruses followed the source file for the language, HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahasa_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiwe0fMMIUKdOA1CMmgYL5PJNWMvg" o " Computer language" computer language designed for the human eyes and experienced operators. Walaupun demikian, virus-virus amat tidak mungkin dapat mengekori fail data seperti fail-fail MP3 , MPG , OGG , JPG , GIF , PNG , MNG , PDF , dan DVI (senarai jenis fail yang umumnya boleh dipercayai ini adalah tidak lengkap). However, viruses are not likely to be followed, such as data files files HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/MP3&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhlngkkENbpJ69Sl10K2_7_JCluKg" o " MP3" MP3 , MPG , OGG , JPG , GIF , PNG , MNG , PDF , and DVI (the list of file types that are generally believed to be incomplete). <br />Walau jika sesuatu virus dapat 'menjangkiti' fail sebegini, ia tidak akan dapat dilaksanakan kerana tidak adanya sebarang cara untuk kod virus berbuat demikian. Even if a virus to 'infect' such a file, it will not be implemented because there is no way to code a virus to do so. Bagaimanapun, suatu kaveat harus disebut tentang fail PDF yang, serupa dengan fail HTML , boleh berpaut dengan kod jahat. However, a caveat should be mentioned on the PDF file, similar to files HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhitOvwmisP1ezFaa3j3aLeTegPwJQ" o " HTML" HTML , can be linked with malicious code. Tambahan pula, limpah atas penimbal dalam sesebuah atur cara yang membaca fail data boleh dieksploitasikan dan dipergunakan untuk mencetuskan pelaksanaan kod yang tersembunyi di dalam fail data. In addition, HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DLimpah_atas_penimbal%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiwSm46VURPn8bARv5fr4soPX2KXw" o " The buffer overflow (not exist)" the buffer overflow in a program that can read data files being exploited and used to trigger the implementation of the code hidden in the data file. Walaupun demikian, kesan serangan ini dapat dikurangkan dengan ketara oleh seni bina komputer yang mempunyai bit tak boleh laksana . However, the impact of this attack can be reduced significantly by HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seni_bina_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhietbqXzuRyal9VZb8HYqRvOt_yww" o " Computer architecture" a computer architecture that has HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBit_NX%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhic0754M5Wnnwr-oHCHwm9gNt4eQA" o " NX bit (not present)" no executable bit . <br />Adalah memadai untuk memperhatikan bahawa sesetengah pencipta virus telah menulis sambungan fail .EXE pada hujung .PNG (misalnya), dengan harapan bahawa para pengguna akan berhenti pada jenis fail yang dipercayai tanpa perasan bahawa komputer akan memulakan pelaksanaannya dengan jenis fail yang terakhir. It is sufficient to note that some virus creator has been writing HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DSambungan_fail%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhh91yuL4pvWF1cZHqFXqv0MQtv_Sg" o " Connection files (not exist)" the file extension . EXE at the end. PNG (for example), hoping that consumers will stop at the trusted file type without noticing that the computer will begin the implementation of the final file type. Sila lihat kuda Troy . Please see the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuda_Troy_(komputer)&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhWj1U2p3PzW96izSCbWaukoUGVrA" o " Trojan Horse (computer)" horse of Troy . <br />[ sunting ] Kaedah untuk mengelakkan pengesanan [ edit ] Methods to avoid detection <br />Untuk mengelakkan pengesanan oleh pengguna, sesetengah virus menggunakan berbagai-bagai jenis penipuan. To avoid detection by users, some viruses to use various types of fraud. Sesetengah virus yang lama, khususnya untuk pelantar MS-DOS, memastikan bahawa tarikh " pengubahsuaian terakhir" untuk fail perumah dikekalkan apabila fail itu dijangkiti oleh virus. Some old viruses, especially for MS-DOS platform, make sure that the date " last modification" for the file host is maintained when the file is infected by the virus. Bagaimanapun, pendekatan ini tidak dapat menipu perisian anti-virus , khususnya perisian anti-virus yang mengekalkan dan mentarikhkan Kod Lewahan Sekitar apabila fail diubah. However, this approach can not fool HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPerisian_anti-virus%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjzsZ2KBWYI1Be82x_crj8Mb_aR0w" o " Anti-virus software (not present)" anti-virus software , especially anti-virus software is maintained and date HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DCRC%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgdG5zbTityHdDPNA72StmzWJpUmA" o " CRC (not present)" code Lewahan around when the file was changed. <br />Sesetengah virus juga boleh menjangkiti fail tanpa menambah saiz fail atau merosakkannya. Some viruses can infect files without increasing the file size or damage. Virus ini yang digelar " virus rongga" dapat mencapai perbuatan tersebut dengan menulis ganti kawasan-kawasan fail boleh laku yang tidak digunakan. The virus is called " cavity virus" can be the act of overwriting areas of executable files that are not used. Misalnya, virus CIH atau Virus Chernobyl boleh menjangkiti fail Boleh Laku Mudah Alih . For example, the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DVirus_CIH%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgqUm6kMxNrDW2d32CuyuxG2KWdVw" o " CIH virus (not present)" virus CIH or Chernobyl virus can infect files HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBoleh_Laku_Mudah_Alih%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3xJ26K-rm0SC8GFz3oB6U64LXWA" o " Callers can Portability (not present)" may Behavior Portable . Oleh sebab fail-fail itu mempunyai banyak sela, virus yang 1 KB panjangnya tidak akan menambah saiz fail yang dijangkiti. Because the files that have a lot of intervals, the virus that 1 HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilobait&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjhCEki1ee70q3ktpr-xcvr3Qshhw" o " Kilobytes" kb in length will not increase the size of the infected file. Sesetengah virus mencuba mengelakkan pengesanan dengan menghapuskan tugas-tugas yang dikaitkan dengan perisian anti-virus sebelum ia dapat mengesannya. Some viruses try to avoid detection by eliminating the tasks associated with anti-virus software before it can be detected. <br />Ketika komputer-komputer dan sistem-sistem pengendalian berkembang menjadi lebih besar dan lebih rumit, teknik-teknik penyembunyian yang lebih lama perlu dikemas kini dan digantikan. As computers and operating systems become larger and more complex, concealment techniques longer be updated and replaced. Melindungi komputer anda daripada virus mungkin memerlukan sistem fail anda untuk berhijrah kepada kebenaran yang terperinci dan eksplisit bagi setiap jenis capaian fail. Protect your computer from viruses may require your file system to migrate to a more detailed and explicit permission for each type of file access. <br />[ sunting ] Mengelakkan fail umpan dan lain-lain [ edit ] Avoiding bait files and other <br />Virus perlu menjangkiti perumah untuk merebak. Viruses must infect a host to spread. Dalam sesetengah kes, penjangkitan atur cara perumah bukannya suatu cara yang baik kerana banyak atur cara anti-virus menyemak kewibawaan kod sendiri. In some cases, the infection of host program is not a good way for many anti-virus program to check the integrity of the code itself. Oleh itu, menjangkiti atur cara sedemikian akan menaikkan kemungkinannya untuk dikesan. Thus, the infected program will increase the likelihood of such to be detected. Atas alasan ini, sesetengah virus diprogramkan supaya tidak akan menjangkiti atur cara yang merupakan sebahagian perisian anti-virus. For this reason, some viruses are programmed not to infect programs that are part of the anti-virus software. <br />Lagi sejenis perumah yang virus kekadang akan mengelakkan ialah fail umpan (atau fail kambing ). Another type of housing will prevent the virus sometimes is bait files (or goat files). Fail umpan ialah fail yang dicipta khusus oleh perisian anti-virus atau oleh pencipta perisian anti-virus semata-mata untuk dijangkiti oleh virus. Bait files are files that were created specifically by the anti-virus software, or by the creator of the anti-virus software alone to be infected by the virus. Fail-fail ini dicipta atas berbagai-bagai alasan, dengan kesemuanya berkait dengan pengesanan virus. These files are created for various reasons, all related to the detection of the virus. Para pencipta perisian anti-virus boleh menggunakan fail umpan untuk: The creator of anti-virus software can use bait files to: <br />Mengambil sampel virus, iaitu salinan fail atur cara yang dijangkiti oleh virus. Virus samples, which copies the program files are infected by the virus. Menukarkan sebuah fail umpan terjangkit yang kecil adalah lebih praktik, berbanding dengan menukarkan sebuah atur cara penggunaan terjangkit yang besar. Converting a small infected bait file is more practical, compared to convert a HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DAtur_cara_penggunaan%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiTTjq6rPEsAPo66L08FSJRS1hhXw" o " Program use (not present)" program using a large infected. <br />Mengkaji tindakan virus dan menilai kaedah-kaedah pengesanan. Studies the virus and evaluate detection methods. Ini adalah amat berguna apabila virus itu bersifat polimorf . This is very useful when the virus is HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kod_polimorf&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhYMg4hnGoaF6rjSoEZ7JJgmzoo6A" o " Polymorphic code" polymorphic . Dalam kes ini, perisian anti-virus boleh membuat virus itu menjangkiti sebilangan besar fail umpan. In this case, anti-virus software can make a virus that infects a large number of bait files. Fail-fail yang terjangkit boleh digunakan untuk menguji tentang adakah pengimbas virus berkesan terhadap semua versi virus itu. The infected files can be used to test the virus scanner is effective against all versions of the virus. <br />Mencetuskan perisian anti-virus supaya memberikan amaran kepada pengguna bahawa sistem komputernya mungkin dijangkiti oleh virus apabila fail-fail umpan diubah. Trigger anti-virus software to warn the user that the computer system may be infected by the virus as bait files page. <br />Oleh sebab fail-fail umpan digunakan untuk mengesan virus atau untuk memungkinkan pengesanan, sesebuah virus boleh memanfaatkan diri jika ia tidak menjangkiti fail-fail tersebut. Because the bait files are used to detect the virus or to enable detection, a virus can take advantage of themselves if they do not infect files. Virus biasanya berbuat sedemikian dengan mengelakkan atur-atur cara yang menimbulkan kesangsian, seperti fail atur cara yang kecil atau atur cara yang mengandungi pola 'arahan sampah' yang tertentu. Viruses typically do this by avoiding programs suspicious manner, such as small program files or programs that contain the pattern 'garbage instructions' specific. <br />Salah satu strategi yang digunakan oleh virus komputer untuk menjadikan fail umpan tidak berkesan ialah penjangkitan jarang . One of the strategies used by a computer virus to make the files is not effective bait is rarely infection. Penjangkit jarang kekadang tidak menjangkiti fail perumah yang merupakan calon yang sesuai dalam keadaan-keadaan yang lain. Agencies rarely sometimes not infect host files that are suitable candidates in other situations. Umpamanya, virus boleh memutuskan secara rawak tentang adakah ia hendak menjangkiti sesuatu fail atau tidak. For example, the virus can be decided at random about whether it is to infect a file or not. Sebaliknya, sesetengah virus hanya boleh menjangkiti fail perumah pada hari-hari yang tertentu dalam setiap minggu. On the other hand, some viruses can only infect host files on particular days in each week. <br />[ sunting ] Cara sembunyi-sembunyi [ edit ] How to stealth <br />Sesetengah virus mencuba menipu perisian anti-virus dengan menyekat permintaannya kepada sistem pengendalian . Some viruses try fool HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPerisian_anti-virus%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjzsZ2KBWYI1Be82x_crj8Mb_aR0w" o " Anti-virus software (not present)" anti-virus software to block the request to the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_pengendalian&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiv-eMEDprrL2tabeddlAOTgLWNXQ" o " Operating system" operating system . Virus tersebut boleh menyembunyikan diri dengan menyekat permintaan perisian anti-virus untuk membaca fail dan mengalihkan permintaan yang sepatutnya diterima oleh sistem pengendalian kepada virus. The virus can hide itself by limiting the demand for anti-virus software to read files and transfer requests have been received by the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_pengendalian&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiv-eMEDprrL2tabeddlAOTgLWNXQ" o " Operating system" operating system to the virus. Virus itu kemudian akan mengembalikan versi fail yang tidak terjangkit kepada perisian anti-virus supaya fail itu kelihatan " bersih" . The virus would then return the file version is not affected by the anti-virus software so that the file appears " clean." Perisian anti-virus yang moden menggunakan berbagai-bagai teknik untuk mengatasi mekanisme virus yang sembunyi-sembunyi. Anti-virus software uses a variety of modern techniques to overcome the mechanisms of the stealth virus. Kaedah tunggal yang boleh dipercayai sepenuhnya untuk mengelakkan mekanisme sembunyi-sembunyi itu adalah untuk membut daripada medium yang kebersihannya diketahui. Single method that can be fully trusted to avoid the stealth mechanism that is to boot from a clean medium known. <br />[ sunting ] Pengubahsuaian diri [ edit ] Modification of self- <br />Kebanyakan atur cara anti-virus yang moden mencuba mengesan pola-pola virus dalam atur cara biasa dengan mengimbasnya untuk mencari apa yang dipanggil tandatangan virus . Most anti-virus program that modern patterns to try to detect the virus in a common program to scan to find the so-called virus signatures. Tandatangan virus ialah pola bait tipikal yang merupakan sebahagian virus atau keluarga virus yang tertentu. Virus signature byte pattern that is typical of a virus or a particular family of viruses. Jika sesuatu pengimbas virus menemukan pola sedemikian dalam sesuatu fail, ia akan memberitahu pengguna. If a virus scanner to find such patterns in a file, it will notify the user. Pengguna itu kemudian boleh menghapuskan, atau dalam sebilangan kes, " membersihkan" atau " menyembuhkan" fail yang terjangkit. The user can then delete, or in some cases, " clean" or " heal" the infected file. Sesetengah virus menggunakan teknik-teknik yang menyebabkan pengesanan melalui tandatangan amat sukar tetapi bukan tidak mungkin. Some viruses use the techniques that resulted in the detection of the signature is very difficult but not impossible. Virus-virus itu akan mengubah suai kodnya pada setiap penjangkitan, iaitu setiap fail yang terjangkit akan mengandungi kelainan virus yang berbeza. Viruses that will modify the code on each infection, in which each infected file contains a variety of different viruses. <br />[ sunting ] Pengekodan dengan petunjuk berubah-ubah [ edit ] Encoding with variable guide <br />Kaedah untuk mencipta virus yang lebih maju ialah penggunaan penyulitan untuk mengensifer sesuatu virus. Method to create a virus that is more advanced is the use of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penyulitan&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhidfFMuYlIHvbXMipbeurLdJRNwwg" o " Encryption" encryption to HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DEnsifer%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhT8bxFeBEqbZeSX1vaGu9qrNZAnw" o " Ensifer (not present)" mengensifer a virus. Dalam kes ini, virus akan terdiri daripada dua bahagian, iaitu sebuah modul penyahsulitan yang kecil dan sebuah salinan penyulitan kod virus. In this case, the virus consists of two parts, namely a small decryption module, and a copy of the encryption code of the virus. Jika virus itu disulitkan dengan satu kunci yang tidak sama bagi setiap fail yang terjangkit, bahagian tunggal yang masih dikekalkan di dalam virus ialah modul penyahsulitan yang misalnya, akan dilampirkan pada hujung fail virus itu. If the virus is encrypted with a key that is not the same for each infected file, the sole remaining virus is maintained in the decryption module, for example, be attached at the end of the virus file. Dalam kes sedemikian, pengimbas virus tidak dapat mengesan virus secara langsung melalui tandatangan, tetapi ia masih boleh mengesan modul penyahsulitan yang memungkinkan pengesanan virus secara tidak langsung. In such cases, the virus scanner can not directly detect the virus by hand, but it still can detect decryption module that allows the detection of the virus indirectly. Oleh sebab ini merupakan kunci-kunci bersimetri yang disimpan dalam perumah yang terjangkit, virus terakhir sebenarnya masih boleh dinyahsulitkan tetapi perbuatan ini mungkin tidak diperlukan kerana kod mengubah suai diri adalah amat jarang sehingga pengimbas virus hanya diperlukan menandai fail itu sebagai menimbulkan kesangsian. Because this is a symmetric keys stored in the infected host, the virus can still be modified actually dinyahsulitkan but this act may not be necessary for self-modifying code is rare until the virus scanner is only required to mark the file as suspicious. <br />Salah satu penyulitan yang lama tetapi padat melibatkan penXORan setiap bait dalam virus dengan sesuatu pemalar, dengan a XOR b = c, dan c XOR b = a, supaya eksklusif atau operasi itu hanya perlu diulangi untuk penyahsulitan. One of the old but solid encryption involves HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DXOR%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi5liVBEnwhth44jkgF-QRANug2Ew" o " XOR (not present)" penXORan each HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bait&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgoUbNHd5yf7o3wLAK_gv_oWFdNkg" o " Bait" byte in a virus with a constant, with a XOR b = c, and c XOR b = a, for the exclusive or operation is only to be repeated for decryption. Oleh sebab hanya kod yang menimbulkan kesangsian akan mengubah suai diri, kod itu tetap merupakan sebahagian tandatangan dalam banyak takrif virus dan dengan itu, dapat dikesan oleh perisian anti-virus dengan mudah. Because the only suspicious code will modify itself, the code remains a signature in many virus definitions and thus can be detected by anti-virus software easily. <br />[ sunting ] Kod polimorf [ edit ] Polymorphic Code <br />Kod polimorf merupakan teknik pertama yang menimbulkan ancaman yang dahsyat kepada pengimbas virus. Polymorphic code was the first technique that raises the threat of devastating the virus scanner. Serupa dengan virus tersulit yang biasa, virus polimorf akan menjangkiti fail-fail dengan sebuah salinan tersulit diri yang dinyahkod oleh modul penyahsulitan. Similar to the most difficult common virus, polymorphic virus will infect files with a copy of the most difficult personal dinyahkod by decryption module. Bagaimanapun, dalam kes-kes virus polimorf, modul penyahsulitan ini juga akan diubah suai setiap kali ia menjangkiti fail. However, in cases of polymorphic viruses, this decryption module will be modified each time they infect a file. Justera itu, sebuah virus polimorf yang ditulis dengan teliti tidak mempunyai sebarang bahagian yang tepat sama selepas setiap penjangkitan dan oleh itu, menyebabkannya amat sukar dikesan secara langsung dengan menggunakan tandatangan. Therefore, a polymorphic virus that is written with care does not have any part of the match after each infection, and therefore, makes very difficult to detect directly using signatures. <br />Perisian anti-virus boleh mengesan virus dengan menyahsulitkannya melalui penggunaan pelagak atau melalui analisis pola statistik tentang bahagian virus yang tersulit. Anti-virus software can detect viruses decrypt it by using HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DPelagak%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjJy007iUDLODmydnOxaHCSrUsfhg" o " Emulator (not present)" emulator or through HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DAnalisis_pola%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgkXQVk8K5hAUIWUuLyf4KaRnjxWA" o " Pattern analysis (not present)" analysis of patterns of statistics about the most difficult part of the virus. Untuk membolehkan kod polimorf, virus harus mempunyai enjin polimorf (juga dikenali sebagai " enjin memutat " atau " enjin mutasi " ) di dalam bahagian tersulitnya. To enable polymorphic code, the virus must have a HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DEnjin_polimorf%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhioU4kY4UWh7xwSgY-9FqCFkWR5FQ" o " Polymorphic engine (not present)" polymorphic engine (also known as the " engine HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutasi&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhHu0g9-0e8U5pTzP3gvJsn5cC-Ig" o " Mutations" memutat " or" engine HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutasi&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhHu0g9-0e8U5pTzP3gvJsn5cC-Ig" o " Mutations" mutation " ) in the tersulitnya. Sila lihat kod polimorf untuk perincian teknik tentang bagaimana enjin sedemikian berjalan. See Polymorphic code for technical details about how such an engine is running. <br />Sesetengah virus menggunakan kod polimorf dengan cara yang menyekat kadar mutasi virus dengan nyata sekali. Some polymorphic virus code in a way that blocks the virus mutation rate significantly. Umpamanya, virus boleh diatur cara supaya tidak banyak memutat atau langsung tidak memutat apabila ia menjangkiti fail-fail di dalam komputer yang telah mengandungi salinan-salinan virus. For example, the virus can be arranged so that there are not many ways not even memutat memutat or when it infects files on the computer that contains copies of the virus. Kelebihan untuk menggunakan kod polimorf lambat adalah bahawa ia menyebabkan ahli profesional anti-virus lebih sukar untuk memperoleh sampel-sampel yang mewakili virus kerana fail-fail umpan yang terjangkit dalam setiap jalanan biasanya akan mengandungi sampel-sampel virus yang sama atau serupa. Advantages to using a slow polymorphic code is that it causes anti-virus professionals more difficult to obtain samples representing the virus because bait files that are infected in each street will usually contain samples of the same or a similar virus. Ini akan mengakibatkan pengesan pengimbas virus lebih mungkin tidak boleh dipercayai, dengan virus-virus itu kekadangnya dapat mengelakkan pengesanan. This will result in more virus scanning sensors may not be believed, the virus is sometimes able to avoid detection. <br />[ sunting ] Kod metamorf [ edit ] Metamorphic Code <br />Untuk mengelakkan pengesanan melalui perlagakan, sesetengah virus menulis semula keseluruhan diri setiap kali sejurus sebelum menjangkiti fail boleh laku yang baru. To avoid detection by perlagakan, some viruses rewrite themselves every time all infected files immediately before the new behavior. Virus-virus yang menggunakan teknik ini dikatakan bersifat metamorf . Viruses that use this technique is said to be HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kod_metamorf&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiN9OymmbG4l7YIGP_0k_zwH04V8g" o " Metamorphic Code" metamorphic . Untuk membolehkan metamorfisme , sebuah enjin metamorf diperlukan. To enable HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DMetamorfisme%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgmwwFQ65Q0s6qJOQsl1lHyPHTaFw" o " Metamorfisme (not present)" metamorfisme , a metamorphic engine is needed. Virus metamorf biasanya amat besar dan rumit. Metamorphic virus is usually very large and complex. Sebagai contoh, W32/Simile terdiri daripada melebihi 14 ribu garis kod bahasa himpunan , dengan 90% daripadanya merupakan bahagian enjin metamorf. For example, HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DW32/Simile%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiVtArYnbpHdgnLdBii0_f_S3EOIg" o " W32/Simile (not present)" W32/Simile consists of more than 14 thousand line of code HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahasa_himpunan&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjvSiEy1iZ-NZiGqCnWJRyGjNkerA" o " Assembly language" assembly language , with 90% of whom are part of the metamorphic engine. <br />[ sunting ] Kerentanan sistem pengendalian [ edit ] operating system vulnerability <br />Lagi satu perbandingan antara virus komputer dengan virus biologi adalah bahawa kepelbagaian genetik dalam sesuatu populasi akan mengurangkan kemungkinan seluruh populasinya dihapuskan oleh satu penyakit yang tunggal. Again a comparison between computer viruses virus biology is that genetic diversity within a population will reduce the likelihood of the whole population was eliminated by a single disease. Serupa juga, kepelbagaian sistem perisian dalam rangkaian membatasi potensi virus untuk menghapuskannya. Similarly, the diversity of software systems in the network to limit the potential to remove viruses. Bagaimanapun, ini kemudian menjadi suatu kebimbangan pada dekad 1990-an apabila Microsoft menguasai pasaran sistem pengendalian komputer meja dan suit pejabat , dengan para pengguna perisian Microsoft (khususnya perisian perangkaian seperti Microsoft Outlook dan Internet Explorer ) amat mudah terdedah pada bahaya perebakan virus. However, it later became a concern in the decade of the 1990s , when Microsoft dominated the market HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_pengendalian&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiv-eMEDprrL2tabeddlAOTgLWNXQ" o " Operating system" operating system desktop and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DSuit_pejabat%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi2l7ff-k0nsyGRr9_vTVYFp5AjUA" o " Office suite (not present)" office suite , with the use of Microsoft software (especially networking software such as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DMicrosoft_Outlook%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhSEbo4D-TJyHC5lgAJSPs-Up9T_g" o " Microsoft Outlook (not present)" Microsoft Outlook and Internet Explorer ) is vulnerable to spread of the virus. <br />Perisian Microsoft telah disasarkan oleh para pencipta virus kerana penguasaan komputer mejanya, dengan perisian-perisiannya sering dikritik kerana mengandungi banyak kesilapan dan peluang untuk para penulis virus mengeksploitasikan. Microsoft software has been targeted by the creator of the virus for control of mejanya computer, with software-software is often criticized for containing many errors and opportunities for virus writers to exploit. Perisian- perisian penggunaan , baik yang bersepadu mahupun yang menggunakan bahasa penskripan dengan kemudahan untuk mencapai sistem fail (umpamanya Skrip Visual Basic (VBS) dan perisian penggunaan dengan ciri-ciri perangkaian), juga amat mudah terdedah pada bahaya perebakan virus. Software, application software , either integrated or the use of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahasa_penskripan&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiDi2MXqJSyndqgMHPOFnfX98Bf7Q" o " Scripting language" scripting languages with facilities for achieving the file system (such as HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DSkrip_Visual_Basic%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgiy7ar2sCOXJqfv31oOm14Dz3Njw" o " Visual Basic Script (not present)" Visual Basic Script (VBS) and applications with networking features), are also vulnerable to spread of the virus. <br />Walaupun Windows merupakan sasaran serangan sistem pengendalian yang popular kepada para pencipta virus, sesetengah virus juga wujud untuk pelantar-pelantar yang lain. Although Windows is the target of the popular operating system attacks the virus author, some viruses also exist for other platforms. Sebenarnya, mana-mana sistem pengendalian yang membenarkan atur-atur cara pihak ketiga untuk dilaksanakan secara teori juga boleh melaksanakan atur cara virus. In fact, any operating system that allows programs to be implemented the way the third party in theory can perform virus program. Sesetengah sistem pengendalian adalah lebih selamat berbanding dengan lain. Some operating systems are safer than others. Sebagai contoh, sistem pengendalian berasaskan Unix (dan perisian NTFS untuk pelantar-pelantar berasaskan Windows NT ) hanya membenarkan penggunanya melaksanakan fail boleh laku di dalam ruang terlindung yang terletak di dalam direktori masing-masing. For example, an operating system based on HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhineDjSIpotEVtaPmxifmENqYY0Jw" o " Unix" Unix (and software HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/NTFS&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjH2aPVSt-Nz_fbrlBo0TDp7cm8Og" o " NTFS" NTFS for platforms based on HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjBRfLai7HoylHyPgiS3lXcJwqpKQ" o " Windows NT" Windows NT ) only allows users to perform file HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBoleh_laku%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgSEUnYU17MG6Nv7dpMerIOXHtMZQ" o " Executable (not present)" executable in the protected area located in the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DDirektori_(sistem_fail)%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi0DqAVuKdBvw6MnBpPOTNC48H-Qg" o " Directory (file system) (not present)" directory respectively. <br />Sehingga tahun 2006 , tidak terdapat banyak kejadian keselamatan [1] yang menyasarkan Mac OS X (dengan sistem fail berasaskan Unix). As of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiou6zOQPrJKju6oAMds7rZR32c6Q" o " 2006" 2006 , there was a lot of security incidents HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3gRknxSG6alSqzSnr4imqEauh3w" l " cite_note-0" [1] which targets HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgcflGxyYT74xL-hTQjqWnj5iQFcg" o " Mac OS X" Mac OS X (with a file system based on Unix). Kerentanan-kerentanannya yang diketahui terangkum dalam pengelasan cecacing dan kuda Trojan . Susceptibility-known kerentanannya embodied in the classification of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecacing_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgBMEnZfKCEwsDl1CJHBbbodJScuw" o " Computer Worm" worms and HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DKuda_Trojan%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhicDqXFm81w76fkqRcjmCSkuJGY9g" o " Trojan horse (not present)" Trojan horses . Anggaran bilangan virus untuk Mac OS Klasik , sistem pengendalian Apple yang lebih lama, amat berbeza dari sumber ke sumber, dengan Apple menyatakan bahawa terdapat hanya empat virus yang diketahui, dan sumber-sumber bebas memberikan bilangan sebanyak 63. Estimated number of viruses for HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DMac_OS_Klasik%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhiSeFHTK_g4_Kcir_kKa-CfxXiIMg" o " Mac OS Classic (not present)" Mac OS Classic , operating systems Apple older, very different from source to source, with Apple stating that there are only four known viruses, and independent sources to provide the number of 63. Walaupun demikian, adalah selamat untuk mengatakan bahawa komputer Mac kurang mungkin dieksploitasikan kerana tapak Unix yang selamat, serta juga kerana virus khusus Mac hanya berupaya menjangkiti sebahagian yang kecil daripada komputer-komputer Apple dan oleh itu, menyebabkan usaha itu tidak begitu mengghairahkan. However, it is safe to say that the Mac is less likely exploited for a secure Unix base, as well as the specific virus can only infect March a small part of Apple computers, and thus cause the business is not so stimulating. <br />Kerentanan terhadap virus antara Mac dan Window merupakan tumpuan jualan utama yang dipergunakan oleh Apple Computers untuk memujuk para pengguna komputer Microsoft supaya beralih kepada komputer Apple ( Dapatlah Mac ). Susceptibility to the virus between Mac and Windows is the focus of major sales are used by HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc.&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhi_RiRUIxmtoOcZDB9nFkr30XEMZQ" o " Apple Inc." Apple Computers to persuade computer users HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjaEaxotLXdEo6Zgz5vgETQ1hU9TQ" o " Microsoft" Microsoft to switch to Apple computers ( HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DDapatlah_Mac%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhh1qcOra2Dq-f1HqpS3enIiNMOeXQ" o " Let Mac (not present)" let March ). Secara ironi, jika terjadinya peralihan tapak pengguna daripada komputer peribadi kepada Mac, maka pelantar Mac OS X kemudian akan menjadi sasaran yang lebih mengghairahkan kepada para pencipta virus. In irony, if the occurrence of transition the user base of HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komputer_peribadi&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhioq_jD5_sSTkwq-nm92c-FtZ26kQ" o " PC" PC to Mac, but Mac OS X platform and will be the target of a more stimulating to the virus creator. Oleh sebab tidak adanya banyak penyelesaian anti-virus untuk pelantar OS X pada masa ini, terdapat kemungkinan bahawa ini dengan amat cepatnya akan menjadi suatu masalah yang besar kepada para pengguna Mac, dengan syarikat Apple Computers betul-betul menjadi mangsa kepada kejayaan sendiri. [2] Because there is not much anti-virus solution for OS X platform at this time, there is the possibility that this very quickly will be a big problem to our Mac users, the company Apple Computers actually become a victim of its own success. HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3gRknxSG6alSqzSnr4imqEauh3w" l " cite_note-1" [2 ] <br />Windows dan Unix mempunyai keupayaan penskripan yang serupa, tetapi sedangkan Unix menyekat semua pengguna biasanya daripada membuat perubahan kepada sekitaran sistem pengendalian, Windows tidak berbuat begitu. Windows and Unix have similar scripting capabilities, but while Unix block all users typically make changes to the environment of the operating system, Windows does not do so. Pada tahun 1997 , ketika suatu virus untuk Linux dibebaskan (dikenali sebagai " Bliss " ), para penjual perisian anti-virus yang utama memberikan amaran bahawa sistem-sistem bak Unix akan menjadi mangsa kepada virus-virus seperti dengan Windows. [3] In 1997 , when a virus for HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhXz0n_g6J-tpLqkG6m73qJ1uQ_5Q" o " Linux" Linux was released (known as " HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBliss_(virus)%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhnLqJWsF43GicujRDUmhBO7T79xw" o " Bliss (virus) (not present)" Bliss " ), the anti-virus software vendors are warning that major systems HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBak_Unix%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhOCf8rpTXhpQ4xBBAOW9dd-smLcA" o " Unix (non-existent)" like Unix will become prey to viruses as Windows. HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3gRknxSG6alSqzSnr4imqEauh3w" l " cite_note-2" [3] <br />Virus Bliss boleh dianggap sebagai virus yang tipikal – bertentangan dengan cecacing – untuk sistem-sistem Unix. Bliss virus may be regarded as a typical virus - as opposed to HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecacing_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhgBMEnZfKCEwsDl1CJHBbbodJScuw" o " Computer Worm" worms - for Unix systems. Ia memerlukan pengguna melaksanakannya secara eksplisit (dan dengan itu, menyebabkannya merupakan salah satu kuda Trojan), dan hanya berupaya menjangkiti atur-atur cara yang dicapai oleh pengguna untuk membuat perubahan. It requires the user to implement an explicit (and thus, making it one of the Trojan horse), and can only infect programs that achieved by the user how to make a difference. Berbeza dengan para pengguna Windows, kebanyakan pengguna Unix tidak log masuk sebagai pentadbir kecuali untuk memasang atau menatarajahkan perisian. Unlike Windows users, most Unix users do not log in as administrator but to install or HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DTatarajah%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhjKoH9qTaKtQ0vA3EH5IjaC4oRsOA" o " Configuration (not present)" configure software. Oleh itu, walau jika pengguna dapat melaksanakan atur cara virus, perbuatannya tidak akan menjejaskan sistem pengendalian. Thus, even if the user can execute a program virus, actions will not affect the operating system. Virus Bliss tidak pernah merebak, dan hanya merupakan suatu keanehan penyelidikan. Bliss virus never spread, and only a research curiosity. Penciptanya kemudian memaparkan kod sumber virus itu di tapak web Usenet dan dengan itu, membenarkan para penyelidik melihat bagaimana ia berjalan. [4] Creator then display HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kod_sumber&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg6UXarVdq_K8ICOl1eDoMG69JzNQ" o " Source code" the source code of the virus in the HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapak_web&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhhcxxFRBK0YBFYS7N2vmaS1qcmw5Q" o " Web site" web site Usenet and therefore, allow researchers to see how it is run. HYPERLINK " http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=ms%7Cen&u=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer&prev=/translate_s%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dvirus%2Bkomputer%26sl%3Den%26tl%3Dms&rurl=translate.google.com.my&usg=ALkJrhg3gRknxSG6alSqzSnr4imqEauh3w" l " cite_note-3" [4] <br />What is Virus <br />Virus adalah sejenis aturcara dibawah golongan perisian penyangak. The virus is a program under the rogue software. Di bawah disenaraikan perisian-perisian penyangak yang dikenali umum. Below are listed the rogue software is common<br />Wooden Horse (Trojan Horse) <br />called after an epic rocker in the Greek and Trojan war in the past, this program looks like in terms of external program used for common good but have hidden agenda in it. Kebanyakkan aturcara penyangak di serahkan kepada pengguna sebagai Trojan Horse. Most of rogue software on the user's hand as a Trojan Horse. Ini termasuk aturcara virus. These include a virus program<br />How to Virus Diseases <br />Seperti yang diperkatakan diatas, virus akan berjangkit apabila seseorang menggunakan perisian yang sudah dijangkiti. Perisian ini selalunya diedar melalui diskette atau pun melalui rangkaian komputer. As said above, the virus will be transmitted when a person already infected software. This software is often distributed via diskette or via a computer network. Sebagai contoh, senario dibawah sering berlaku; For example, under common scenarios; <br />Pembuat virus akan mengedar virus ini dengan bersama dengan sebuah perisian permainan yang menarik. Virus makers will distribute this virus with an exciting game software. Perisian ini diletakkan dalam internet dan diedarkan secara percuma. This software is placed in the Internet and distributed for free. <br />Seorang pelajar telah memunggah perisian ini kedalam komputer di makmal dan bermain dengan permainan ini. A student was loading software into computers in the lab and play with this game. Komputer dalam makmal ini telah dijangkiti. Computers in this lab has been infected. <br />Seorang teman berminat dengan permainan ini menyalinnya kedalam disket dan bermain di komputer dirumahnya dan menjangkit komputer dirumahnya.. A friend interested in this game and copy it into play on a computer diskette and spread computer dirumahnya dirumahnya .. <br />Seorang lagi pelajar menggunakan komputer yang telah dijangkiti tadi untuk membuat kerja kursus dan menyimpan hasil kerjanya kedalam disket. Semasa menyalin kerja kursusnya, aturcara virus yang ada dalam memori telah menyelinap masuk kedalam sektor boot disket ini. Another student used a computer has been infected just to make the course work and keep his work into the diskette. During the course of work copying, the program is a virus in memory is sneak into the diskette boot sector is. Keesokkanya pelajar ini ingin memperkemaskan lagi kerja kursusnya telah dapat menggunakan sebuah kemputer lain yang tidak digunakan. Keesokkanya students to enhance course work has been to use an unused kemputer other. Semasa mengguna komputer telah berlaku ralat pada komputer dan pelajar tersebut terpaksa memulakan semula komputer tanpa menyedari yang disketnya masih dalam pemacu cekera. While using the computer has an error occurs on the computer and the student had to restart the computer without aware that disketnya still in the driver disk. Terdapat ralat yang mengatakan disket tadi bukanya disket sistem yang boleh digunakan untuk memulakan komputer. There was an error that says just bukanya floppy diskette system that can be used to start the computer. Virus telah pun masuk kedalam komputer ini. The virus has already entered into the computer. Pelajar mengeluarkan disket dan tekan sebarang kekunci dan komputer kembali beroperasi bersama virus ini yang telah pun menjangkiti rekod boot utama komputer ini. Students remove diskette and press any key and the computer business again with this virus has infected the computer is the main boot record. <br />Seorang bapa telah menggunakan komputer untuk membuat kertas kerja menggunakan komputer dirumahnya yang telah dijangkiti virus dan kemudian memperkemaskan kertas kerjanya dengan komputer dipejabat dan menjangkiti komputer tersebut. A father has been using computers for making paper using a computer that was infected with the virus dirumahnya and then refine his paper to the computer dipejabat and infect the computer. Komputer ini akan menjangkiti disket lain dan begitulah seterusnya. These computers will infect other diskettes, and so on. <br />Sebagai rumusan, komputer berjangkit melalui disket atau rangkaian. As a summary, computer diskette, or transmitted through the network. Ia menjangkiti disket yang boleh ditulis dan fail yang boleh dilaksanakan. It can infect the diskette file can be written and implemented. Aturcara yang telah dijangkiti akan berjangkit pada cekera atau aturcara lain apabila dilaksanakan. Program was infected disk or transmitted to another program when implemented. <br />Cara Menghindar Dari Dijangkiti Virus How to avoid Infected Virus <br />Semua disket perlu diperlindung supaya tidak dapat ditulis melainkan jika perlu sahaja. All diskettes should diperlindung that can not be written only if necessary. <br />Semak disket dengan perisian anti-virus sebelum menggunakannya Check diskette with anti-virus software before using it <br />Disket yang telah digunakan ditempat lain termasuk dirumah perlu disemak Diskettes that have been used elsewhere, including at home should be checked <br />Laporkan sebarang peristiwa yang mencurigakan. Report any suspicious events. Semak kehadiran virus jika gerak kerja biasa mendatangkan keputusan yang tidak dijangka Check the presence of the virus if the normal working movements cause unexpected results <br />perhatikan jumlah ruang cekera yang masih kosong note the amount of disk space is still empty <br />perhatikan fail yang bertukar dengan melihat mengikut turutan tarikh note the change by looking at the file in order of date <br />semak sektor yang rosak Check the damaged <br />Semak semua fail yang didapati dari komputer lain Check all the files available from other computer <br />Pastikan pemacu cekera liut terbuka semasa memulakan komputer Make sure the floppy drive is open when starting computer <br />Tukarkan turutan mulakan komputer menggunakan cekera keras C dahulu sebelum cekera A Change the order to start the computer using the hard disk C before disk A <br />Gunakan perisian antivirus untuk menyemak fail sekurang-kurangnya seminggu sekali dengan memulakan komputer menggunakan disket antivirus selepas menutup komputer sekurang-kurangnya seminit. Use antivirus software to check the files at least once a week to start the computer using antivirus diskette after closing the computer at least a minute. <br />Sebaiknya pasangkan perisian antivirus jenis TSR yang dilaksanakan semasa memulakan komputer dan sentiasa berada dalam memori untuk menyemak aturcara atau disket. We recommend that you install antivirus software that performed the TSR of the computer started and remain in memory for a program review or diskette. <br />Buat salinan semua data dan fail sistem penting iaitu: Make copies of all important data and file system are: <br />Sektor boot, Partition Table dan maklumat CMOS Boot sector, partition table and CMOS information <br />Arahan DOS utama iaitu command.com, fdisk, mirror, format, fail MSAV dan debug Directions, namely DOS command.com, fdisk, mirror, format, files and debug MSAV <br />Fail autoexec.bat dan config.sys Autoexec.bat and config.sys files <br />Apakah tanda-tanda komputer anda dijangkiti What are the signs of your computer is infected <br />komputer menjadi perlahan computer slow down <br />aturcara biasa mengambil masa untuk dimulakan regular program takes time to begin <br />aturcara mencapai beberapa cekera walaupun sebelumnya tidak begitu program achieved a number of disk even if not previously <br />aturcara membuat capaian cekera dengan kerap walau sebelumnya tidak begitu write a disk access on a regular basis although not previously <br />ruang cekera berkurang dengan cepat disk space decreases rapidly <br />jumlah sektor yang rosak bertambah increase the amount of damage <br />ruang memori berkurang dengan cepat less memory space quickly <br />terdapat aturcara dalam memori yang tidak dikenali sebelumnya (guna arahan MEM) there is a program in memory of the previous unknown (use command MEM) <br />aturcara biasa dijalankan tiba-tiba terhenti dan rosak normal program run suddenly stopped and damaged <br />mesej pelik dipaparkan strange messages appear <br />perkara pelik atau lawak berlaku pada komputer anda weird or funny things happen on your computer <br />fail-fail tiba-tiba hilang files are suddenly missing <br />fail-fail digantikan dengan kandungan aneh> files are replaced with strange content> <br />atribut fail bertukar change file attributes <br />semakan menggunakan perisian anti-virus mengatakan ada virus review of anti-virus software says there is virus <br />Apakah Yang Perlu Dilakukan Setelah Dijangkiti Virus What to do After Infected Virus <br />bertenang calm <br />catitkan mesej di layar paparan, jenis virus jika diketahui, fail yang dijangkiti note the message on screen display, the type of virus, if known, the infected files <br />imbas balik apa yang dilakukan sebelum dijangkiti Search for that done before the infected <br />kumpulkan disket yang berdekatan dan dari pemacu untuk disemak gathered near the diskette and the drive to be reviewed <br />semak senarai virus dari intranet atau internet dan bandingkan mesej atau peristiwa yang berlaku check the list of intranet or Internet virus and compare the messages or events that occur <br />tutup komputer computer close <br />mulakan komputer menggunakan disket anti-virus yang suci dan tidak boleh ditulis start a computer using a diskette that is pure anti-virus and can not be written <br />catit mesej tentang fail yang dijangkiti dan cuba mencucinya dari virus catit message about an infected file and try to clean of viruses <br />mulakan semula komputer menggunakan cekera keras restart the computer using the hard disk <br />semak semua cekera liut yang disyaki check all floppy disk suspected <br />jika cekera liut tidak boleh dibersihkan formatkannya(fail akan hilang) if the floppy disk can not be cleaned formatkannya (the file will be lost) <br />untuk memulihkan fail cuba salin ke tempat lain menggunakan pelbagai cara to try to restore a file copy to the other in many ways <br />untuk pulih dari cluster hilang laksanakan arahan chkdsk /f dan periksa fail file#### .chk to recover the lost cluster run the command chkdsk / f and check the file file # # # #. chk <br />untuk memulihkan FAT, salin FAT yang tidak rosak ke salinan utama (memerlukan utiliti Norton) to restore FAT, FAT copy is not damaged to the main copy (requires utilities Norton) <br />untuk memulihkan dari kerosakan rekod boot utama MBR laksanakan arahan fdisk /mbr dan masukkan maklumat partition table secara manual. to recover from the damage to the main MBR boot record run fdisk command / MBR partition tables, and enter the information manually. <br />untuk memulihkan sektor boot dan fail io.sys serta msdos.sys, laksanakan arahan sys [d:] to restore the boot sector and file io.sys and msdos.sys, run the command Sys [d:] <br />gantikan fail command.com dengan yang bersih replace the command.com file with a clean <br />