Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
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Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet

Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet

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Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet Presentation Transcript

  • A MIXED METHODS STUDY OF STUDENT EXPERENCES WITH SCHOOL PRACTICES DEEMED IMPORTANT TO AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT A Dissertation Defense by Steven Norfleet April 9, 2010 William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair Major Subject: Educational Leadership
  • Dissertation Committee Members
    • William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
    • (Dissertation Chair)
    • Camille Gibson, Ph.D. Lisa Hobson, Ph.D.
    • (Member) (Member)
    • Ronald Howard, Ph.D. Wanda Johnson, Ph.D.
    • (Member) (Member)
  • Dissertation Defense Format
    • Background of the Problem
    • Purpose of the Study
    • Statement of the Problem
    • Significance of the Study
    • Conceptual Model
    • Research Questions
    • Literature Review
    • Method
    • Findings
    • Discussion of Null Hypotheses
    • Conclusions
    • Recommendations
  • Background of the Problem
    • Public schools in the United States continue to struggle with the issue of closing the achievement gap between the African American student and their White counterparts.
    • For some 40 years, educators and researchers alike have attempted to implement solutions to the achievement gap problem. Using primarily top-down approaches, solutions have ranged from improving teacher and administrator qualities, to improving the curriculum, to placing more emphasis on student outcome data, to increasing the rigor in core subject areas, to more tutoring, to less tutoring, and on and on.
  • Background of the Problem (cont.)
    • Since the first NAEP report card was issued, African
    • American achievement scores in reading, mathematics,
    • and science among 9, 13, and 17 year olds have
    • averaged some 30 points below their White peers.
  • Trend in Black-White Achievement Gap in Reading 1971-2008 Source: Rampey, B.D., Dion, G.S., & Donahue, P.L. (2009). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
  • Trend in Black-White Achievement Gap in Mathematics 1971-2008 Source: Rampey, B.D., Dion, G.S., & Donahue, P.L. (2009). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
  • Trend in Black-White Achievement Gap in Mathematics 1971-2008 Source: Rampey, B.D., Dion, G.S., & Donahue, P.L. (2009). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
  • Trend in Grade Twelve Science Achievement Gap by Race/Ethnicity 1996-2005 Source: Grigg, W., Lauko, M., and Brockway, D. (2006). The Nation’s Report Card: Science 2005 (NCES 2006-466). Washington, DC: Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (Met Standard, Sum of All Grades Tested 2005-2008)
    • Source: Texas Education Agency, 2009
    62% 67% 70% 72% 76% 80% 82% 84% 45% 52% 55% 58% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year All White African American Percent Passing
  • Texas College Readiness Scores Source: Texas Education Agency, 2009
  • Background of the Problem (cont.)
    • Rovai, Gallien Jr. and Stiff-Williams (2007) present the added complexity that closing the achievement gap in elementary and secondary schools has now carried over to higher education.
  • Background of the Problem (cont.)
    • Thompson (2002) remarked that because of the increase in pressure on K-12 school administrators to meet higher federal and state accountability standards including all of the other responsibilities placed on school administrators, California school leaders are asking, what can we do to improve the academic performance of African American children?
  • Background of the Problem (cont.)
    • Lingard, Ladwig and Luke (2004) point out that the black box of schooling needs to be opened with more in depth, qualitative analyses of processes that actually occur in schools.
    • Cooper (2000) - If reform-minded educators are serious about closing the achievement gap before several decades pass in the new millennium, we must continue to identify alterable factors in the schooling process that help to promote academic success among all students and particularly students of color.
  • Background of the Problem (cont.)
    • Marzano (2003) - If a school can simply identify those variables on which it is not performing well, it can pinpoint and receive the information it needs to improve student achievement.
  • Purpose of the Study
    • The purpose of the mixed methods study was to
    • describe African American students’ perceptions of
    • effective leadership practices at their high schools.
  • Statement of the Problem
    • The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act is arguably the most sweeping
    • federal education reform effort to force schools to close the
    • achievement gap for minorities since the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
    • Although the NCLB legislation has now been in effect for nine
    • years, recent National Assessment of Educational Progress
    • (NAEP), ACT, SAT, and in Texas the Texas Assessment of
    • Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, have not shown a
    • significant decrease in the academic achievement gap between
    • African American students and their White counterparts.
  • Significance of the Study
    • Understanding that raising student achievement directly leads to growth in the national economy and the provision of a smarter work force, the 2001 NCLB ACT provided additional federal funds to states to improve achievement. With a specific focus on sub-populations, the ACT mandates higher teaching standards, more accountability, and increased student performance.
    • Barber (2008) points out in the 1960s the U.S. led the world in high school qualifications and Korea was 27th. Now Korea leads the world and the U.S. is 13th and falling. As recently as 1995 the U.S. was second in the world on college-level graduation rates; just a decade later it has slipped to 14 th .
    • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study or TIMSS (2007) indicate that eighth grade United States students are ninth in the world in mathematics and tenth in science out of 47 countries tested.
  • Significance of the Study (cont.)
    • This study sought to improve the practices of the
    • education team. Results of the study may:
    • generate new strategies and approaches to employ
    • by the education team that could lead to improved
    • academic achievement in all students;
    • provide quantitative and qualitative data to school leaders on the influence of an effective high school on the achievement of African American students that are considered at risk as college students;
  • Significance of the Study (cont.)
    • provide college and university teacher education programs with information on schooling leadership practices that resonate with African American learners;
    • and
    • for policy makers, results may shed light on funding support and program interventions that African American students say are needed with future generations of African American students from similar backgrounds as themselves.
  • Conceptual Model
    • According to the Aspen Institute (2008), given the stakes of closing the achievement gap, it is imperative to improve the performance of the education team to achieve greater success in schools.
    • Chubb and Moe (1990) stated
    • All things being equal, a student in an effectively organized school achieves at least a half-year more than a student in an ineffectively organized school over the last two years of high school. If this difference can be extrapolated to the normal four-year high school experience, an effectively organized school may increase the achievement of its students by more than one full year.
  • Conceptual Model (cont.) Student Improved Student Achievement Lezotte’s Correlates of Effective Schools SAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE OF HIGH EXPECTATION FOR SUCCESS CLEAR AND FOCUSED MISSION POSITIVE HOME/SCHOOL RELATIONS FREQUENT MONITORING OF STUDENT PROGRESS OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN, TIME ON TASK INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • Research Questions
    • Quantitative
    • 1. How do African American students, enrolled in a developmental education mathematics course at a selected Black university describe their experiences with each correlate of effective schools?
    • 2. How do the correlates of effective high schools relate to student achievement in a developmental education mathematics course, for freshman and sophomore African American students enrolled at a selected Black university?
  • Research Questions (cont.)
    • Qualitative
    • 1. How do African American students enrolled in a developmental education mathematics course at a selected historically Black university report that their former high school campus strove to improve academic achievement for all by:
    • providing a safe and orderly environment for learning;
    • encouraging high expectations for success for all students;
    • demonstrating effective instructional leadership;
    • implementing a clear and focused mission;
    • maintaining an opportunity to learn and quality time on tasks for all students;
    • frequently monitoring student progress; and
    • developing and sustaining strong home-school relations?
  • Review of Literature
    • Collyn Bray Swanson (2004) examined safe and orderly environment in a study to determine if there was a difference in the performance of military dependent African American students attending a public school and military dependent African American students attending Department of Defense schools. Results indicated students in the Department of Defense schools scored higher on college entrance exams than did the African American students in the public school system.
  • Review of Literature (cont.)
    • Bamburg and Andrews (1990) conducted an investigation specifically looking at the relationships of a clear and focused mission and the role of the principal as the campus instructional leader to the academic achievement of students. Results indicated that the school goal “To insure academic excellence” showed a significant difference between high achieving and low achieving schools.
  • Review of Literature (cont.)
    • Gentulucci and Muto (2007) conducted a study investigating students’ perceptions of what principals as instructional leaders do to influence their academic achievement.
    • One finding was when principals visited classrooms and interacted with students the effect on achievement was more influential than the instructional leader whose visits were few, short, and passive.
    • Students also indicated that principals that walked around the classroom, checked on their work, and provided gentle advice had more powerful influence on their learning than those sitting in the back of the classroom and observing passively.
  • Review of Literature
    • Boscardin (2005) conducted a study to determine how Opportunity To Learn (OTL) variables impact student outcomes and if the effects were consistent across the subjects of English and algebra assessments. One finding of the study was content coverage was extended when student time was not interrupted. This result was found to be consistently associated with student performance.
  • Review of Literature
    • Zuelke (1982) attempted to customize a model that school districts could use to reallocate human and material resources to enhance reading and mathematics achievement. The study summarized that evidence existed to suggest certain school related variables such as student time-on-task do make a difference in mathematics and reading achievement.
  • Review of Literature
    • Zavadsky (2006) research focused on frequent monitoring of school progress in five urban school districts that were awarded the Broad Prize for the most improved school districts in the United States. One consistent finding was a commitment to share and use data and assessments to inform instructional decisions that affect the student, classes, the school, and the district.
  • Review of Literature
    • Stewart’s (2007) study looked at 546 high schools that included 1,238 African American students. Students were asked on the survey to indicate the degree to which parents engaged in a variety of school activities ranging from parent organization meetings to volunteering. Results indicated the importance of the role of educational leaders in building strong relationships between parents and the school, for improved achievement of the African American learner.
  • Review of Literature (cont.)
    • Scheerens and Bosker (1997) identified eight characteristics of successful schools including a focus on achievement and monitoring of student progress .
    • Marzano (2003) identified five characteristics of highly successful schools, and stresses challenging goals and effective feedback as major components to achieving high expectations .
  • METHODS
    • A mixed-methods approach with explanatory design and
    • sequential procedures was employed to address the research
    • problem.
    • An assumption in using mixed methods was that the combination of the quantitative and qualitative methods would provide a better overall view of the research problem than either method by itself.
    • To meet the requirements of the explanatory design and sequential procedures, quantitative data were collected first. This was followed by collection of the qualitative data.
  • METHODS (cont.)
    • Null Hypotheses
    • H01 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of a safe and orderly environment and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
    • H02 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of high expectations for success and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
    • H03 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of instructional leadership and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
  • METHODS (cont.)
    • H04 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of a clear and focused mission and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
    • H05 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of opportunity to learn and time on task and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
    • H06 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of frequent monitoring of student progress and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
    • H07 – There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of home-school relations and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university.
  • Methods (cont.)
    • Subjects of the Study
    • The target population was 378 African American
    • freshman and sophomore college students enrolled in
    • both the fall 2008 and spring 2009 semesters of a
    • developmental education mathematics course at a
    • selected historically black university (HBU).
    • Quantitative Sample
    • Quantitative - Ninety-eight (N=98) students were conveniently selected and gave their consent to participate as a member of the sample group.
  • Methods (cont.)
    • Demographic Data of Student Participants
    • Equivalent Percent of African American Student Participants Enrolled in Developmental Education Mathematics by Gender (N=98)
    • _________ _____________________________________________________________
    • Gender N Percent
    • ______________________________________________________________________
    • Male 35 35.7
    • Female 63 64.3
    • Student Participants Enrolled in Developmental Education Mathematics at a Selected Historically Black College and University (HBCU) by Classification (N=98)
    • ______________________________________________________________________
    • Classification N Percent
    • ______________________________________________________________________
    • Freshman 78 79.6
    • Sophomore 20 20.4
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Quantitative Instrumentation
    • Permission was granted by Effective Schools Products Ltd. to use the database of 2000 questions to create the 42 question-items of the Correlates of Effective Schools Survey.
    • Seven correlates were divided into three sub-categories per correlate, with six questions that combined to describe the correlate. Twenty-one questions were worded in the positive and 21were worded in the negative.
    • Demographic Section – participants self-identified their classification as college students, by ethnicity, gender, and high school attended.
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Reliability and Validity of Quantitative Instrument
    • (1) Construct validity was based on Lezotte’s seven
    • Correlates of Effective Schools.
    • (2) Content validity was checked by a panel of experts.
    • 1. Dissertation chair
    • 2. One assistant professor at the current university
    • 3. One assistant professor at a local university
    • (3) Table 5.
    • Cronbach Alpha of Student Participant Responses on Seven Scales of the Correlates of
    • Effective Schools Survey
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Number of Items Cronbach Alpha Cronbach Alpha Based on Standardized Items
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • 7 0.909 0.911
    • *The results showed that this instrument was reliable.
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Quantitative Procedures
    • Quantitative data were collected in two phases:
    • (1) administering the Correlates of Effective Schools
    • Survey to students enrolled in a Developmental Education Mathematics course on a date agreed to by the mathematics instructors, and
    • (2) collecting students’ fall 2008 official semester grades in Developmental Education Mathematics.
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Subjects of the Study
    • The target population was 378 African American freshman and
    • sophomore college students enrolled in both the fall 2008 and
    • spring 2009 semesters of a developmental education mathematics
    • course at a historically Black university.
    • Qualitative Sample
    • Qualitative - Ninety-eight African American college students agreed to participate in the interview phase of the study. Of this number, 34 were purposely drawn as the sample group to participate in focus group interviews.
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Qualitative Instrumentation
    • The researcher was the instrument of
    • facilitation in collecting interview data from
    • study participants.
  • METHODS (Cont.)
    • Qualitative Procedures
    • Qualitative data were collected on two interview days:
    • Qualitative data were collected in semi-structured interviews with student participants.
    • There were 34 students that participated in the two interview phases of the study.
    • Assignment to focus groups was determined by mathematics instructors giving the researcher the permission to conduct student interviews in the classroom and at the regular class time on agreed upon dates. Two students were interviewed individually.
  • Findings Quantitative Analysis and Findings (SPSS 13.0) Research Question #1 Statistical Measurement How do African American students, enrolled in a developmental education mathematics course at a selected historically Black university describe their experiences with each correlate of effective schools? Descriptive statistics measures including central tendencies, frequency distribution, and percentages were used to summarize the results of the survey.
    • Table 3.
    • Descriptive Statistics of Correlates of Effective Schools Survey Results
    • by Subscale (N=98)
    • __________________________________________________________
    • Correlate Range Min Max Sum M SD
    • __________________________________________________________
    • Safe and orderly
    • environment (1-6) 15 6 21 1208 12.33 3.089
    • High expectations
    • for success (7-12) 14 6 20 1159 11.83 3.050
    • Instructional leader-
    • ship (13-18) 19 5 24 1226 12.51 3.975
    • Clear and focused
    • mission (19-24) 17 6 23 1179 12.0 3.288
    • Opportunity to learn,
    • time on task (25-30) 15 7 22 1262 12.88 2.923
    • Frequent monitoring of
    • student progress (31-36) 16 6 22 1192 12.16 2.824
    • Home-school relations
    • (37-42) 16 7 23 1406 14.35 2.981
  • Findings (cont.) Quantitative Findings and Analysis (SPSS 13.0) RESEARCH QUESTION #2 HYPOTHESES INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE STATISTICAL TEST How does the correlates of effective high schools relate to student achievement in a developmental education mathematics course, for freshman and sophomore African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university?
    • H01-07 There is no statistically significant relationship between the rating of
    • a safe and orderly environment
    • high expectations for success
    • instructional leadership
    • clear and focused mission
    • opportunity to learn and time on
    • tasks
    • frequently monitoring student
    • progress
    • home-school relations
    • and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course by African American students enrolled at a selected historically Black university
    Correlates of Effective Schools Semester Grade in Developmental Education Mathematics (1) Correlation using Pearson r and Multiple Regression Analysis R ² (2) Two-Tailed Test of Significance
  • Findings (cont.)
    • Table 2.
    • Sum and Equivalent Percent of Student Participant Survey Responses by Scoring Scale
    • ___________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Scale Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
    • Agree Disagree
    • ______________________________________(1)___________(2)__________(4)_________(5)_______
    • Safe and orderly
    • environment (items 1-6) 121 (20.9%) 238 (41.0%) 126 (21.6%) 97 (16.6%)
    • High expectations for
    • success (7-12) 172 (29.6%) 271 (46.6%) 104 (17.8%) 35 (6.0%)
    • Instructional leadership
    • (13-18) 129 (22.2%) 213 (36.6%) 161 (27.7%) 77 (13.2%)
    • Clear and focused
    • mission (19-24) 148 (25.3%) 308 (52.7%) 97 (16.6%) 32 (5.5%)
    • Opportunity to learn,
    • time on task (25-30) 115 (19.7%) 301 (51.6%) 123 (21.1%) 44 (7.6%)
    • Frequent monitoring of
    • student progress (31-36) 141 (24.1%) 306 (52.5%) 109 (18.6%) 28 (4.8%)
    • Home-school relations
    • (37-42) 95 (16.3%) 229 (39.2%) 180 (30.9%) 79 (13.6%)
    • Total 921 (22.6%) 1866 (45.7%) 900 (22.0%) 392 (9.6%)
  • Findings (cont.)
    • Table 4.
    • Pearson Correlation and Two-Tailed Test of Significance as a Function of Mathematics Grade (N=98)
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Correlate Function of Mathematics Grade
    • Pearson Correlation (r) Significant (Two-Tailed)
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Safe and orderly environment
    • (items 1-6) 0.080 0.431
    • High expectations for success
    • (7-12) -0.042 0.684
    • Instructional leadership
    • (13-18) 0.107 0.294
    • Clear and focused mission
    • (19-24) 0.058 0.571
    • Opportunity to learn, time on task
    • (25-30) -0.076 0.455
    • Frequent monitoring of student
    • progress (31-36) 0.180 0.076
    • Home-school relations
    • (37-42) 0.021 0.835
    • *p < 0.05, two-tailed.
  • Discussion Null Hypotheses 01-07
    • Null Hypotheses H01-07
    • There is no statistically significant relationship between the
    • rating of
    • a safe and orderly environment;
    • high expectations for student success;
    • instructional leadership;
    • a clear and focused mission;
    • opportunity to learn and time on task;
    • frequent monitoring of student progress;
    • home-school relations;
    • and achievement in a developmental education mathematics course
    • by African American students enrolled at a selected historically
    • Black university.
    • *According to results noted in table 5, null hypotheses 01-07 were
    • not rejected.
  • Findings (cont.)
    • Major Qualitative Findings
    • Theme 1: Environment Conducive to Learning (15 of 34 or 44%)
    • “ In the hallways, control the small things that groups argue about so that they do not turn into big things.”
    • “ My school had a lot of fights…. They pulled the fire alarm just to get out of school … and there was a high pregnancy rate.”
    • “ Drugs and gangs”
    • “ Peer pressure”
    • “ Stop students from bringing weapons to school”
  • Findings (cont.)
    • Major Qualitative Findings
    • Theme 2:Assurance of Effective Instructional
    • Leadership (20 of 34 or 59%)
    • “ It goes back to some teachers want to help students and some just want to pick up a paycheck.”
    • “ We had a lot of substitute teachers.”
  • Findings (cont.)
    • Further Analysis of Themes 1 and 2 (90%)
    • University College fills gaps by providing tutoring
    • University College fills gaps by helping students build good relationships with other students
    • University College provides a homey atmosphere
    • Counselors doors are always open to provide guidance and there are seminars on lots of things
    • UC checks on students on a regular basis
  • Conclusions
    • The present study focused on the voice left out in the research on improving African American achievement, the student as a member of the problem solving team.
    • What works best in schools for improving student achievement—and in this study, specifically for African American achievement—will be unique to the population the school serves.
    • The quantitative findings indicated 68.3% of study respondents thought that their high school was running effectively.
    • The qualitative findings revealed that a safe learning environment, strong instructional leadership, and good teachers were what student participants said really matters in improving achievement of future students from similar backgrounds as themselves.
  • Conclusions (cont.)
    • For school leaders, it is important to continue to believe that schools can make a difference and overcome obstacles to learning and success on the part of all students.
    • student participants disclosed in interviews that they were thankful for the opportunity to pursue a college degree. They also thought it was good that there were programs in place at their current university to help them overcome their deficiencies to achieving.
    • In closing, it is important that in moving forward the learner is consulted from time to time on how his or her educators are doing.
  • Recommendations
    • To address the obstacles to achieving at the highest levels from the
    • perspective of study participants, the following recommendations are
    • presented.
    • Recommendations for Teachers, Counselors, Principals, and Other
    • Educational Leaders:
    • Student participants indicated that good teachers and a good learning environment were very important.
    • School leaders should maintain an aligned curriculum in which high school and first year of college curricula in core subjects are fluid.
    • There should be more direct conversations between high school teachers and college instructors.
    • African American students in grades 9-14 should receive more guidance and counseling in terms of building self-confidence, solidifying future plans, developing strong time-management skills, and developing strong goal setting skills.
  • Recommendations (cont.)
    • Recommendations for Policy Makers
    • Policy makers should provide information and continue funding programs on college campuses that help students with known deficiencies to catch up in core subjects.
    • Policy makers should fund guidance counseling services on a variety of issues for students in grades 9-14.
  • Recommendations (cont.)
    • Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study could be conducted with first-year of college mathematics and science instructors to learn more about the challenges they face and the relationship of their pedagogical training to African American student achievement.
    • A study could be conducted with a similar population at other predominantly Black institutions of higher education to understand if a trend can be established.
    • A similar study could be conducted with Hispanic and Asian student populations to determine their needs in the transition from high school to college.
  • REFERENCES
    • Bamburg, J. D., & Andrews, R. L. (1990, April). Instructional leadership, school goals, and student achievement: Exploring the relationship between means and ends. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA.
    • Barber, Sir M. (2008). Neither rest nor tranquility: Education and the American dream in the 21st century . Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.
    • Chubb, J., & Moe, T. (1990). Politics, markets, and America’s schools . Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.
    • Cooper, R. (2000). Urban school reform from a student-of-color perspective. Urban Education, 34 (5), 597-622.
    • Gentulucci, J. (2004). Improving school learning: The student perspective. Educational Forum, 68 (2), 133-141.
  • REFERENCES
    • Gentulucci, J., & Muto, C. (2007). Principal’s influence on academic achievement: The student perspective. NASSP Bulletin , 91 (3), 219-236.
    • Lezotte, L. (2007). Surveys and survey sampling . Retrieved November 20, 2007, from http:// esrealitycheck.com/rc/gettingStarted.htm
    • Marzano, R. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Publishers.
    • Rovai, A., Gallien Jr., L., & Stiff-Williams, H. (2007). Closing the African American achievement gap in higher education . New York, NY: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
    • Thompson, G. (2002). African American teens discuss their schooling experiences. Westport, CT: Gergin and Garvey Publishers.
    • Thompson, G. (2008). Beneath the apathy: Black and Latino students in a low­-performing high school identify the school factors that keep them from engaging in learning. Educational Leadership , 65 (6), 53-54.
  • Thank you for attending my presentation.
    • STEVEN NORFLEET