Rollkur

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A 10min PP Pres on recent advances in the research on Rollkur.

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Rollkur

  1. 1. Rollkur/Hyperflexion Recent Advances in Equine Science Laura Rafferty - Trow (Fig 2: Hyperflexion, www.sustainabledressage.com). (Fig 2: ‘A top rider in the warm-up arena. www.sutainabledressage.com)
  2. 2. What is ‘Hyperflexion’ <ul><li>&quot;Hyperflexion of the neck is a technique of working/training to provide a degree of longitudinal flexion of the mid-region of the neck that cannot be self-maintained by the horse for a prolonged time without welfare implications.” (FEI 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>‘… a training method involving forced flexion of the poll and neck with the horse’s head pulled behind the vertical .’ (FEI 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Deep and round (rolkur): A modern tendency to train the horse to carry its head low and its cervical vertebrae maximally flexed …To critics, the deep and round technique is seen as a form of false collection and may have welfare implications .’ (McGreevy et al 2005) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does it look like? <ul><li>Nose to chest – ‘Bitting the chest’ (Popp 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Flexion in the middle part of the neck (Clayton 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Head is behind the vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme flexion at the poll </li></ul><ul><li>Bulging Splenius muscle </li></ul><ul><li>(Fig 3: ‘Power and Paint’ http:// www.eurodressage.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>(Fig 4: ‘Top rider warming up’ www.sustainabledressage.com) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Timeline <ul><li>Baucher and Morris (cited in Lesbre 1920) studied weight distribution between the fore and hind limbs with different head positions </li></ul><ul><li>1946: the Dutch scientist E. J. Slijper (cited in Cornille, no date) investigated the workings of the equine neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodin (2003) ‘ The influence of head and neck position on the kinematics of the back in riding horses’ – Free/ low position = more back movement than ‘high’ position. ‘At trot there was no significant difference in stride length as regards the head and neck position .’ </li></ul>Table 1: From Lesbre (1920) – cited in Odberg (2005)
  5. 5. Timeline Continued <ul><li>August 2005, Dressur Pervers, St Georg – public ‘outing’ of Rollkur </li></ul><ul><li>1 st International Equine Science Symposium (IESS): Australia – discusses the Ethology of training. </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Report of the FEI Veterinary and Dressage Committees' Workshop The use of over bending (“Rollkur”) in FEI Competition </li></ul><ul><li>2006: ‘Workload and stress in horses: comparison in horses ridden deep and round (‘rollkur’) with a draw rein and horses ridden in a natural frame with only light rein contact’ – Workload was higher when horses were worked in ‘Rollkur’ – however, this study was conducted on riding school horses. </li></ul><ul><li>2006: 7 th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology: Skeletal Biomechanics –Head position mainly effects the forelimbs (Weishaupt et al 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>-‘A high position reduces normal back mobility, whereas the Rollkür position increases the range of motion at trot.’ (Gomez et al 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>- A low (and out) neck position raises the back – not a curled neck. (Von Peinen et al 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The draw rein significantly influenced the head and neck angles, but the changes were not found to correlate with kinetics.’ (Bystrom et al 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Timeline Continued <ul><li>2008 – ‘Impact of riding in a coercively obtained Rollkur posture on welfare and fear of performance horses’ (Von Borstel et al) – Higher behavioural signs of discomfort (p<0.05), chose ‘neutral’ over ‘rollkur’ when given choice (p<0.05) and displayed more fear during ‘rollkur’ condition (p= 0.092, 0.087). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conclusion <ul><li>‘ Inappropriate schooling is probably an underestimated welfare problem.’ (Cartier d’Yves and Odberg 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Rollkur’ does increase workload in riding school types. </li></ul><ul><li>In experienced hands ‘Rollkur’ is not seen to be abuse. (FEI 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>However, Von Borstel et al (2008) found welfare reducing effects – this was published after the FEI workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Rollkur does have an effect on movements of the back (Rhodin 2003 and Gomez et al 2006) and fore limbs (Weishaupt et al 2006) but these results are conflicting. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the evidence, to date, is conflicting – this could be because they are not all using the same ‘Rollkur’. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Further Questions <ul><li>Effect of ‘Rollkur’ on back, fore and hind limb kinematics at walk, trot and canter with a rider? </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of ‘Rollkur’ on biokinematics during the advanced movements </li></ul><ul><li>Do horses trained using ‘Rollkur’ get better results? </li></ul><ul><li>Can judges tell when a horse has been trained this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Cortisol levels as an indicator of stress? </li></ul><ul><li>Large Epidemiological studies, pre and post mortem, into the long term physiological effects of ‘Rollkur’ </li></ul><ul><li>There are still a myriad of questions to be answered concerning this controversial technique. As Equitation Science becomes more popular the links between the ‘art’ and science of riding will be explored further – hopefully informing, with facts, this heated debate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. References <ul><li>Bystrom A, Roepstorff L and Johnston C (2006) ‘Influence of draw reins on limb kinematics in relation to kinetics’ Conference Proceedings from the 7 th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology: Skeletal Biomechanics: France </li></ul><ul><li>Cartier d’Yves A and Odberg F, O (2005) A preliminary study on the relation between subjectively assessing dressage performances and objective welfare parameters.’ Proceedings of the 1 st International Equitation Science Symposium: Australian Equine Behaviour Centre, Melbourne, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Clayton H, M (2006) ‘ RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING OVER-BENDING (ROLLKUR)’ Report of the FEI Veterinary and Dressage Committees' Workshop: The use of over bending (“Rollkur”) in FEI Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Cornille J, L (no date) ‘Long and Low’ </li></ul><ul><li>www.eurodressage.com (2008) available at: http://www.eurodressage.com accessed on 03/02/09 </li></ul><ul><li>FEI (2006) Report of the FEI Veterinary and Dressage Committees Workshop: The use of over bending (“Rollkur”) in FEI Competition, FEI Veterinary Committee meeting at the Olympic Museum, Lausanne. </li></ul><ul><li>Gomez C, Rhodin M, Poepstorff L, Weishaupt M and Van Weeren R (2006)’ A high head and neck position reduces back movement in dressage horses compared to a natural position, but the “Rollkür position” increases back mobility.’ Conference Proceedings from the 7 th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology: Skeletal Biomechanics: France </li></ul><ul><li>Lesbre FX. 1920. Précis d’Extérieur du Cheval. Cited by: Ollivier D 1999. La Vérité sur l’Equilibre. Editions Belin, s.l. 188 pp. </li></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>McGreevy P, D, McLean A, N, Warren-Smith A, K, Waran N and Goodwin D (2005) ‘Defining the terms and processes associated with equitation’ Proceedings of the 1 st International Equitation Science Symposium: Australian Equine Behaviour Centre, Melbourne, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Odberg F, O (2005) ‘ The evolution of schooling principles and their influence on the horse’s welfare.’ Proceedings of the 1 st International Equitation Science Symposium: Australian Equine Behaviour Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Eds: Editors : P. McGreevy, A. McLean, A. Warren-Smith, D. Goodwin, N. Waran </li></ul><ul><li>Popp, B (2005) ‘ Who’s Responsible For Maintaining The Classical Principles Of Dressage?’ The Chronicle of the Horse (Sept) pp 34 - 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodin M (2003) ‘ The influence of head and neck position on the kinematics of the back in riding horses’ Degree Project 2003:14 ,Veterinary Programme, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, ISSN 1650-7043, Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>www.sustainabledressage.com (2009) available at: http://www.sustainabledressage.com, accessed on 03/02/09 </li></ul><ul><li>Von Borstel U, U, Heatly I, J, Duncan A, Shoveller A, K (2008)’ Impact of riding in a coercively obtained Rollkur posture on welfare and fear of performance horses’ Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116 (2009) pp 228–236 </li></ul><ul><li>Von Peinen K, Weistner T, Keel R, Roepstorff Meyer H, Van Weeren R and Weishaupt M, A (2006) ‘Saddle force measurements in relation to ground reaction forces in different head and neck positions in the ridden horse ’ Conference Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Equine Exercice Physiology: Fontainebleau, France </li></ul><ul><li>Weishaupt M, A, Von Peinen K, Johnstpon C, Roepstorff L, Van Weeren R, Meyer H and Wiestner T. (2006) ‘ Effect of head and neck position on temporal and force parameters in the unridden and ridden horse at trot’ Conference Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Equine Exercice Physiology: Fontainebleau, France </li></ul>

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