Teaching Special Students


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Teaching Special Students

  1. 1. TEACHING SPECIAL STUDENTS: Tips for Teaching Children with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders , Autism , and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Vanessa Mills – W200 –June 16, 2009 Next Table of Contents
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>• Emotional/Behavioral Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>- Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>- Instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Behavioral strategies </li></ul><ul><li>• Autism </li></ul><ul><li>- What is Autism? </li></ul><ul><li>- Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>- Tips for Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>- What is ADHD? </li></ul><ul><li>- Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>- Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>• Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>• Citations </li></ul>Previous I Next
  3. 3. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Behaviors <ul><li>Attention-getting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Limited problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor impulse control </li></ul><ul><li>Defiance of authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Low attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal social interaction skills </li></ul><ul><li>May be very disruptive to others </li></ul><ul><li>Personal struggle with controlling self </li></ul><ul><li>Fears resulting from school problems </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in getting along with others </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Can be aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive </li></ul><ul><li>Can be withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure </li></ul><ul><li>Easily confused </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Problems working in groups </li></ul><ul><li>General mood of unhappiness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Can be immature </li></ul><ul><li>Covers up emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior affects learning </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  4. 4. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Present materials at independent level, not frustration level </li></ul><ul><li>Provide short, manageable tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Set short-term expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat directions frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Use special education staff for problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Follow through on everything </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to modify classroom expectations and homework problems </li></ul><ul><li>Request students to demonstrate verbally their understanding of directions/expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Materials should be presented for all learning styles; e.g., auditory, visual </li></ul><ul><li>Use study skills support </li></ul><ul><li>Provide mini-breaks between lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for peer tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Individualize work assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Structure classroom environment </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  5. 5. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Behavioral Strategies <ul><li>Use positive reinforces </li></ul><ul><li>Use behavior contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Model behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Do not place hands on students </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor and use it </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems privately not publicly </li></ul><ul><li>When disciplining the student address the specific behavior and avoid any indication you dislike the student personally </li></ul><ul><li>Label exact behavior desired; do not be subtle </li></ul><ul><li>Give two choices only, either/or </li></ul><ul><li>Be firm, fair, and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid setting the student up for failure </li></ul><ul><li>Do not put unrealistic expectations on the students </li></ul><ul><li>Define classroom expectations relating to behavior and establish rules with the students </li></ul><ul><li>Have rules posted around the room </li></ul><ul><li>Make expectations clear </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Individualize behavior plans </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently interrelate with students </li></ul><ul><li>Establish contracts with students </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to make choices </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time-out options </li></ul><ul><li>Involve parents </li></ul>Table of Contents Previous I Next
  6. 6. Autism: What is Autism? <ul><li>Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) - a neurological disorder that affects a child’s ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others. PDD represents a distinct category of developmental disabilities that share many of the same characteristics. While there are subtle differences and degrees of severity among these conditions, treatment and educational needs can be very similar for all of them. </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  7. 7. Autism: Behaviors <ul><li>Communication problems (e.g., using and understanding language) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty relating to people, objects, and events </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual play with toys and other objects </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with changes in routine or familiar surroundings and </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive body movements or behavior patterns. </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  8. 8. Autism: Tips for Teachers <ul><li>Learn more about autism/PDD. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure directions are given step-by-step, verbally, visually, and by providing physical supports or prompts, as needed by the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the student’s strengths and interests are and emphasize them. </li></ul><ul><li>If behavior is a significant issue for the student, seek help from expert professional resources (including parents) to understand the meanings of the behaviors and to develop a unified, positive approach to resolving them. </li></ul><ul><li>Have consistent routines and schedules. </li></ul><ul><li>Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel to create and implement an educational plan tailored to meet the student’s needs. </li></ul>Table of Contents Previous I Next
  9. 9. ADHD: What is ADHD? <ul><li>Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). When a child exhibits behaviors associated with ADHD, consequences may include difficulties with academics and with forming relationships with his or her peers if appropriate instructional methodologies and interventions are not implemented. </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  10. 10. ADHD: Behaviors <ul><li>Fidgeting with hands or feet or squirming in their seat (adolescents with ADHD may appear restless) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty remaining seated when required to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty sustaining attention and waiting for a turn in tasks, games, or group situations </li></ul><ul><li>Blurting out answers to questions before the questions have been completed </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty following through on instructions and in organizing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting from one unfinished activity to another </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to give close attention to details and avoiding careless mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Losing things necessary for tasks or activities </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in listening to others without being distracted or interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>Wide ranges in mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>Great difficulty in delaying gratification </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  11. 11. ADHD: Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Evaluate the child’s individual needs and strengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Select appropriate instructional practices. </li></ul><ul><li>For children receiving special education services, integrate appropriate practices within an IEP. </li></ul><ul><li>Because no two children with ADHD are alike, it is important to keep in mind that no single educational program, practice, or setting will be best for all children. </li></ul>Table of Contents Previous I Next
  12. 12. Reflection <ul><li>The solution to teaching students with these various disorders were quite similar, especially for students battling ADHD or emotional/behavioral disorders; they seem to be “fidgety” and have difficulty following directions. This was obvious to me, however, I never looked on the flip side. Some students with emotional and behavioral disorders actually have opposite symptoms, such as, falling asleep frequently and they may be socially awkward. This made me realize that kids who have problems socially, even if they are good students, may have disorders as well. The most valuable information I learned was repeated through all three articles. “Evaluate the child’s individual needs and strengths. Assess the unique educational needs and strengths of a child with ADHD (or any other disorder) in the class.” </li></ul>Previous I Next Table of Contents
  13. 13. Citations <ul><li>AutismWeb. (2009). Educating Kids with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.autismweb.com/education.htm </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Office of Special Programs. (2006). Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/adhd/adhd-teaching- 2006.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Whitt. (1999). Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders . Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.geocities.com/whitt2_1999/sped6706ch4.html?20052 </li></ul>Previous Table of Contents