1. <ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 cervical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 fused sacral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 fused coccygeal </li></ul></ul>In an adult there are typically 33 individual vertebrae arranged in 26 moveable parts in the spinal column
2. The vertebral column helps to provide vertical support for the body, supports the head, aides in maintaining an upright position, helps transfer weight to appendicular skeleton, and protects the delicate spinal cord.
4. Read about spinal curvature abnormalities in clinical view in text
5. ACCORDING TO THE CLINICAL VIEW IN YOUR TEXT, WHAT CAN CAUSE KYPHOSIS? A OSTEOMALACIA B OBESITY C PREGNANCY D PULLING ON ROPES IN BELL TOWERS E ALL OF THE ABOVE
7. The vertebral foramen is the opening through which the spinal cord passes while the intervertebral foramen allows the spinal nerves to branch off laterally.
8. Intervertebral foraminae allow for lateral exit of spinal nerves
9. There is one spinous process , two transverse processes (left and right), two superior articular processes that interlock with the vertebra above, and two inferior articular processes (not shown) that interlock with the vertebra below.
10. The interlocking of the superior and inferior articular processes limits the twisting of the vertebral column.
11. Fibrocartilage intervertebral disc
12. Soft pulpy core of disc is nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosis
13. Demonstration of proper way of lifting heavy loads so as to minimize injury to lower back.
14. Herniated disc
15. The seven cervical vertebrae allow for the most flexibility, and the least stability, in the entire vertebral column.
16. Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramenae and bifurcated spinous processes , except for C 1 , which has a minimal spinous process.
17. Whiplash of the neck
18. Whiplash of the neck may injure the spinal cord
19. Atlas supports the heavens, not the Earth.
20. The first cervical vertebra (the atlas) articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull on the inferior surface of the occipital bone.
21. Superior view of atlas . Note lack of a body, minimal spinous process (#1), superior articular processes (#3), and transverse foramen (#4).
22. Nodding “yes” movement made possible by articulation of occipital condyles rocking in superior articular processes of the atlas. This articulation is called the atlantooccipital joint .
23. Anterior view of second cervical vertebrae, the axis . Note the odontoid process (dens) labeled #5.
24. Anterior x- ray through open mouth. Note odontoid process (dens) of axis (#9).
25. Atlantoaxial joint
26. The atlantoaxial joint allows the atlas to pivot around the odontoid process so the head can make a side-to-side “no” movement.
27. Method of fracturing odontoid process (dens).
29. Note locations of the atlantoocipital and atlantoaxial joints.
30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS CORRECT ABOUT THE ATLAS? A ITS ARTICULATION WITH THE SKULL ALLOWS SIDE-TO-SIDE “NO” MOTIONS B ITS MOST SUPERIOR PART IS CALLED THE DENS C IT ARTICULATES WITH THE TEMPORAL BONE D IT HAS A PROMINENT SPINOUS PROCESS, HENCE THE TERM “VERTEBRA PROMINENS” E IT HAS HOLES IN ITS TRANSVERSE PROCESSES
31. The spinous process of C 7 (vertebra prominens) is an easily palpable prominence felt at the base of the neck.
33. The classical hangman’s fracture of the cervical vertebrae severs the spinal cord. The large knot is typically positioned just behind the left ear.
34. The thoracic vertebrae serve as attachments for the ribs so as to form the posterior anchor of the thoracic cage.
35. Thoracic vertebrae have costal facets or costal demifacets on their bodies and transverse processes for attachment of the ribs
36. Note ribs attach to bodies and transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
37. Lumbar vertebrae have massive bodies and thick blunt spinous processes. They are the largest vertebrae of the spinal column.
40. (L 3 and L 4 )
41. The L3/L4 intervertebral space is level with the iliac crests of the pelvis
43. The sacrum consists of five fused vertebrae. The sacrum atriculates with the ilia of the pelvis.
44. The sacrum articulates with L5 superiorly, with the bones of the os coxae laterally, and with the coccyx inferiorly.
45. The coccyx consists of four fused vertebrae
46. Human tails rarely occur and are easily removed surgically.
47. The coccyx is easily fractured, particularly by Master Long.
48. Palpation of fractured coccyx by inserting index finger in the rectum and applying pressure.
49. Childbirth can injure both the perineum and the coccyx
51. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARTICULATES WITH THE BONY PELVIS (OSSA COXAE)? A COCCYX B L 5 C SACRUM D AURICLE E NONE OF THE ABOVE
52. The thoracic cage is formed by thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum
53. Contents of thoracic (chest) cavity .
54. (gladiolus) Sternum Costal notches for rib attachment (Sternal notch)
55. Suprasternal fossa is just superior to jugular notch (sternal notch). Note large rope-like muscles that form lateral boundaries of suprasternal fossa.
56. (gladiolus) Sternum Costal notches for rib attachment (Sternal notch)
57. Sternal angle
58. Read about sternal foramina in the clinical view in your text.
59. Xiphoid process
60. Master Long knows where your heart is located!
61. An upward and inward blow to the xiphoid can fracture it off and drive it into the heart (a directly inward blow will drive it into the liver)
62. Master Long delivering the potentially fatal blow to his opponent’s xiphoid.
64. Human sacrifice in Central America
65. Human sacrifice in Central America. Note the sacrificial altar that is reminiscent of a USU parking barricade. This allows the victim to be bent backwards.
66. A curious mind might ask why Utah State University chose this particular design for use around the campus as a traffic barricade? Was it just by mere chance that it mimics the design of sacrificial altar stones of Aztecs?
67. I urge caution if you should see wild-eyed and bare-breasted collegians with red stained hands! (or with runny cheeseburgers)
68. Ribs #1-7 are “true ribs” and are directly attached to the sternum. Ribs #8-10 share the costal cartilage attachment of rib #7, while ribs #11-12 don’t attach anteriorly at all. So ribs #8-12 are also called “false ribs.”
69. Posterior view Ribs #11 and #12 not only are false ribs, they are also floating ribs because they have no attachment to the sternum whatsoever
70. Shaft or Typical rib
71. Cervical rib on C 7 Elongated transverse process Elongated transverse process on C 7 Read about variations in rib development in clinical view in text
72. IF A WANDERING BUG STARTED ON THE OCCIPITAL BONE OF A SKELETON, TRAVELED DOWN 18 VERTEBRAE, AND THEN MOVED ANTERIORLY ALONG A BONE, WHAT BONE WHOULD THE BUG BE WALKING ON? A FLOATING RIB B FALSE RIB C BONE WITH NO COSTAL CARTILAGE D BONE OF THORACIC CAGE E ALL OF THE ABOVE
74. Christopher Reeve in his role as Superman
76. Christopher Reeve became a famous respirator-dependent quadriplegic
77. Christopher Reeve eventually died from an infection that began in a diseased bed sore (decubitus ulcer). He did much to promote research in treatment for spinal injuries.
78. There are many ways to suffer a flail chest . One is shown here.
80. Paradoxical motion occurs when the fractured segment of ribs moves in a direction that is opposite from the rest of the chest wall when the injured person inhales or exhales.
81. Paradoxical motion
82. Spina bifida
83. <ul><li>Spina bifida is caused by a failure of the neural tube to close completely during the first month of embryonic development </li></ul>
84. Infants born with spina bifida are typically paralyzed distal from the defect.
85. Spina bifida occulta (hidden, no opening of the back)
89. Chiropractors have been shown to statistically have the best success with most lower back pain. More so than other healthcare providers.
90. Abdominal crunches that flex the spine strengthen the anterior muscles (such as the rectus abdominus ) that help stabilize the spine Arching or extension of the spine strengthens the posterior muscles (such as the erector spinae muscles ) that help stabilize the spine.
91. Back surgery should be the last resort as outcome is uncertain.
92. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HAS BEEN SHOWN TO REDUCE THE RISK OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, SUCH AS ANENCEPHALY? A B VITAMIN B SUNLIGHT C VITAMIN A D FOLIC ACID WITHIN THE FIRST WEEK AFTER BIRTH E ACCUPUNCTURE
93. <ul><li>This data indicate that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States. </li></ul>