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  1. 1. The Element of Form
  2. 2. Form A form is three-dimensional and encloses volume. Like shapes, forms can be geometric (cubes, pyramids, box like, cones) or irregular (eggs, pears, horses, people, bottles). Form, the volume or mass of objects, is the most important art element for sculptors. While sculptors and potters work with form, painters work with shapes. Painters often use shading to make shapes look like forms. Alberto Giacometti, Man Pointing, 1947. Bronze
  3. 3. Pieta c. 1498-99 Marble Michelangelo Sculpture - A three-dimensional work of art, or the art of making it. Such works may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Sculptures can also be described as assemblage, in the round, and relief, and made in a huge variety of media.
  4. 4. As an art form, sculpture differs from painting in that it exists in space. It can be seen, touched, and often viewed from all sides. Sculpture is concerned with actual space. Not all sculptures can be viewed from all sides. Relief sculptures , for example, are similar in some ways to paintings. Their three-dimensional forms are attached to a flat surface. Like paintings, these works are designed to be viewed from the front. The Entombment of Christ 1449 Stone relief Donatello
  5. 5. Sculpture in the round is any freestanding work surrounded on all sides by space. Not all freestanding sculptures are meant to be seen from all sides, however. Many are designed to be viewed only from the front. The Thinker 1880 Bronze Auguste Rodin
  6. 6. Place yourself in the position of an artist about to transform an idea into three dimensional form. A number of important questions must be answered before you begin. For example what material will you use-clay, wood, stone, metal? What tools and processes are best suited for the material selected? St. George c. 1416-17 Marble Donatello
  7. 7. Artists use a variety of different processes or techniques to create sculptures from the materials they choose. These processes include modeling, carving, casting and assembling . Duane Hanson, United States, 1925-1996 Football Player, 1981 oil on polyvinyl In the process of assembly, the artist gathers and joins together a variety of different materials to construct a three-dimensional work of art.
  8. 8. Modeling is a process in which a soft, pliable material is built up and shaped into a sculptural form. The artist uses a material such as clay, wax, or plaster. Bernini. Angel with the Superscription. 1667-69. Terra-cotta
  9. 9. Carving is cutting or chipping a form from a given mass of material to create a sculpture. Carving is a subtractive technique, because material is removed until the sculpture is completely exposed. Michelangelo Moses. 1513-16 Marble
  10. 10. In Casting, a melted-down metal or other liquid substance is poured into a mold to harden. This method allows the artist to duplicate an original sculpture done in wax, clay, plaster or some other material. Edgar Degas The Little Dancer 1881. Bronze
  11. 11. <ul><li>The cathedral is the most impressive example of the Gothic style. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gothic style is characterized by pointed arches and flying buttresses. </li></ul>othic Architecture Chartres Cathedral. France
  12. 12. The sculptures are part of the architecture. These figures form the columns of this cathedral.
  13. 13. <ul><li>A common feature of the Gothic cathedral is the Gargoyle. </li></ul><ul><li>The grotesque flying monsters project out from the upper portions of the cathedrals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are made of carved stone or cast metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Gargoyles are fantasy figures, part animal and part human. </li></ul><ul><li>They were made to look like frightening monsters to guard churches and scare away evil spirits. </li></ul>argoyles Gargoyle. Notre Dame Cathedral. Paris, France.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Gargoyles had a practical purpose. They were used on the Gothic cathedrals to spit rainwater from the buildings through hollow chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some gargoyles stuck out from the buildings up to three feet. </li></ul>Gargoyles. Notre Dame Cathedral. Paris, France. argoyles... More
  15. 15. More...
  16. 16. This gargoyle is an eagle head made of stainless steel. This is a sculptural ornament on the Chrysler Building in New York.
  17. 17. Sculpture Assignment <ul><li>Look at pictures of Gargoyles for inspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>In your sketchbook draw 2 gargoyles. </li></ul><ul><li>Your finished sculpture should be functional. Example: candle holder, incense burner, book ends… </li></ul><ul><li>You will add texture to your finished piece. </li></ul>