Importance of listening
      strategies
• Definitions
• Applications
• Websites
Definitions of strategy
Definitions of strategy
•Metacognitive strategies
    are “higher order
 executive skills that may
    entail planning for,...
Definitions of strategy
•Metacognitive strategies    •  Cognitive strategies are
    are “higher order          “more direc...
cognitive listening
    strategies
cognitive listening
               strategies
•      Using context, co-text and prioir knowledge to:
•              Infer ...
metacognitive listening
     strategies
metacognitive listening
          strategies
•   Preview contents in different forms
•   Rehearsal of potential language
•...
Identify how knowing about strategy development might
inform our practice when using the web as an information
           ...
Identify how knowing about strategy development might
inform our practice when using the web as an information
           ...
Identify how knowing about strategy development might
inform our practice when using the web as an information
           ...
Identify how knowing about strategy development might
inform our practice when using the web as an information
           ...
So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities
 using the web as...
So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities
 using the web as...
So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities
 using the web as...
So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities
 using the web as...
So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities
 using the web as...
Metacognitive
                                                    "Establish purpose for listening"
If the students chose ...
Metacognitive
                                                    "Establish purpose for listening"
If the students chose ...
Metacognitive
                                                    "Establish purpose for listening"
If the students chose ...
Metacognitive
                                                    "Establish purpose for listening"
If the students chose ...
Metacognitive
                                                    "Establish purpose for listening"
If the students chose ...
Opportunities for
       developing listening
    strategies on the internet
•   http://www.englishlistening.com/getPassag...
Happy
listening
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A small slide show describing how our knowledge of strategy development might inform our practice when using the web for listening activities

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  • Group 1 Presentation

    1. 1. Importance of listening strategies • Definitions • Applications • Websites
    2. 2. Definitions of strategy
    3. 3. Definitions of strategy •Metacognitive strategies are “higher order executive skills that may entail planning for, monitoring, or evaluating the success of a learning activity”
    4. 4. Definitions of strategy •Metacognitive strategies • Cognitive strategies are are “higher order “more directly related to executive skills that may individual learning tasks and entail planning for, entail direct manipulation or monitoring, or evaluating transformation of the the success of a learning learning material” activity”
    5. 5. cognitive listening strategies
    6. 6. cognitive listening strategies • Using context, co-text and prioir knowledge to: • Infer missing / unfamiliar words • Predict general contents • Predict unfinished utterances • Develop understanding Others: • Note taking – content words • Link interpretation to wider social / linguistic context • Link parts of text • Visualise scenes, objects, events • Reconstruct meaning using heard words
    7. 7. metacognitive listening strategies
    8. 8. metacognitive listening strategies • Preview contents in different forms • Rehearsal of potential language • Establish purpose for listening & listen for this purpose • Pay attention to discourse markers, NVC, pronunciation features (tones / pauses) • Monitor and evaluate comprehension using, context, prior knowledge and external resources • Continue listening despite difficulties • Evaluate importance of sections and focus attention accordingly
    9. 9. Identify how knowing about strategy development might inform our practice when using the web as an information resource
    10. 10. Identify how knowing about strategy development might inform our practice when using the web as an information resource Listening resources on the web and course book listenings, have a lot in common with each other. They are after all aural content that the student wishes to understand with the aim of: i) improving their listening skills ii) all the other benefits listening incurs such as input +1, noticing etc. In this scenario, the benefits of knowing about strategy development are no different from internet listenings. However, there are differences between the two environments and if we look at these, we can become aware of specific strategy relevance for the web. The following are characteristics that differentiate listening on the web from listening to course book material in the classroom:
    11. 11. Identify how knowing about strategy development might inform our practice when using the web as an information resource Listening resources on the web and course book listenings, have a lot in common with each other. They are after all aural content that the student wishes to understand with the aim of: i) improving their listening skills ii) all the other benefits listening incurs such as input +1, noticing etc. In this scenario, the benefits of knowing about strategy development are no different from internet listenings. However, there are differences between the two environments and if we look at these, we can become aware of specific strategy relevance for the web. The following are characteristics that differentiate listening on the web from listening to course book material in the classroom: 1. The students can have access to listenings on the net and in their free time 2. The students have control over the playback of the content 3. The students can choose what they want to listen to (as long as it is not content chosen by the teacher) 4. The teacher might not be present while the activity is taking place
    12. 12. Identify how knowing about strategy development might inform our practice when using the web as an information resource Listening resources on the web and course book listenings, have a lot in common with each other. They are after all aural content that the student wishes to understand with the aim of: i) improving their listening skills ii) all the other benefits listening incurs such as input +1, noticing etc. In this scenario, the benefits of knowing about strategy development are no different from internet listenings. However, there are differences between the two environments and if we look at these, we can become aware of specific strategy relevance for the web. The following are characteristics that differentiate listening on the web from listening to course book material in the classroom: 1. The students can have access to listenings on the net and in their free time 2. The students have control over the playback of the content 3. The students can choose what they want to listen to (as long as it is not content chosen by the teacher) 4. The teacher might not be present while the activity is taking place
    13. 13. So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities using the web as source? The following are some ideas, taking reference from a selection of the listening strategies put forward by Goh (2000).
    14. 14. So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities using the web as source? The following are some ideas, taking reference from a selection of the listening strategies put forward by Goh (2000). Cognitive "Predict general contents before listening using contexts and prior knowledge" Whereas in the classroom, the teacher can organise a pre-listening prediction activity, this is more difficult for students working at their own pace online, but it is not impossible, the students could be asked to type or record their predictions before listening, which they would then refer to at the appropriate moment once the listening has finished.
    15. 15. So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities using the web as source? The following are some ideas, taking reference from a selection of the listening strategies put forward by Goh (2000). Cognitive "Predict general contents before listening using contexts and prior knowledge" Whereas in the classroom, the teacher can organise a pre-listening prediction activity, this is more difficult for students working at their own pace online, but it is not impossible, the students could be asked to type or record their predictions before listening, which they would then refer to at the appropriate moment once the listening has finished. "Predict unfinished utterances using contexts, co-text and prior knowledge". In the classroom, the teacher could press the pause button at a given time, and ask the students to predict. However, they would not have control over this in an autonomous environment where they are using non-modified material. On the other hand, if the teacher is using his own material, he could cut up the sound file into sections, asking the student to make a prediction either by typing it, writing it on a piece of paper or recording it through a microphone.
    16. 16. So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities using the web as source? The following are some ideas, taking reference from a selection of the listening strategies put forward by Goh (2000). Cognitive "Predict general contents before listening using contexts and prior knowledge" Whereas in the classroom, the teacher can organise a pre-listening prediction activity, this is more difficult for students working at their own pace online, but it is not impossible, the students could be asked to type or record their predictions before listening, which they would then refer to at the appropriate moment once the listening has finished. "Predict unfinished utterances using contexts, co-text and prior knowledge". In the classroom, the teacher could press the pause button at a given time, and ask the students to predict. However, they would not have control over this in an autonomous environment where they are using non-modified material. On the other hand, if the teacher is using his own material, he could cut up the sound file into sections, asking the student to make a prediction either by typing it, writing it on a piece of paper or recording it through a microphone. "Reconstruct meaning using words heard". This particular cognitive skill is well employed using dictogloss. Ideally, this activity needs to have a "knower" to monitor the student's reconstruction. Online, this could be done via email or a wiki. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that as the student has control over playback, they can re-listen to the material as many times as they like, and may possibly know every word in the text by the time they have finished thus taking away the need for this cognitive skill.
    17. 17. So how would knowing about strategy development inform our practice when organising listening activities using the web as source? The following are some ideas, taking reference from a selection of the listening strategies put forward by Goh (2000). Cognitive "Predict general contents before listening using contexts and prior knowledge" Whereas in the classroom, the teacher can organise a pre-listening prediction activity, this is more difficult for students working at their own pace online, but it is not impossible, the students could be asked to type or record their predictions before listening, which they would then refer to at the appropriate moment once the listening has finished. "Predict unfinished utterances using contexts, co-text and prior knowledge". In the classroom, the teacher could press the pause button at a given time, and ask the students to predict. However, they would not have control over this in an autonomous environment where they are using non-modified material. On the other hand, if the teacher is using his own material, he could cut up the sound file into sections, asking the student to make a prediction either by typing it, writing it on a piece of paper or recording it through a microphone. "Reconstruct meaning using words heard". This particular cognitive skill is well employed using dictogloss. Ideally, this activity needs to have a "knower" to monitor the student's reconstruction. Online, this could be done via email or a wiki. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that as the student has control over playback, they can re-listen to the material as many times as they like, and may possibly know every word in the text by the time they have finished thus taking away the need for this cognitive skill.
    18. 18. Metacognitive "Establish purpose for listening" If the students chose their own listening content then there is less need to establish a purpose for listening as one supposes that the reason they have chosen it is because they want to listen to it. Having said that, one excellent idea for creating purpose is to make a  listening quest, where the student has to understand the content in order to progress to the next stage. The problem with this is that it is the teacher who is creating the purpose rather than the student.
    19. 19. Metacognitive "Establish purpose for listening" If the students chose their own listening content then there is less need to establish a purpose for listening as one supposes that the reason they have chosen it is because they want to listen to it. Having said that, one excellent idea for creating purpose is to make a  listening quest, where the student has to understand the content in order to progress to the next stage. The problem with this is that it is the teacher who is creating the purpose rather than the student. "provide opportunities for individual reflection through listening diaries" These diaries could be private, or available for the teacher and maybe classmates to see. This could be done using a wiki or Ning for example. Reflection on their listening could help lead the students away from being "listening blamers" (Lynch, 1996)
    20. 20. Metacognitive "Establish purpose for listening" If the students chose their own listening content then there is less need to establish a purpose for listening as one supposes that the reason they have chosen it is because they want to listen to it. Having said that, one excellent idea for creating purpose is to make a  listening quest, where the student has to understand the content in order to progress to the next stage. The problem with this is that it is the teacher who is creating the purpose rather than the student. "provide opportunities for individual reflection through listening diaries" These diaries could be private, or available for the teacher and maybe classmates to see. This could be done using a wiki or Ning for example. Reflection on their listening could help lead the students away from being "listening blamers" (Lynch, 1996) "Assess the importance of problematic parts and decide whether to ignore them or actively seek clarification" In real life conversation it would be very difficult for students to do this given the lack of a rewind button. In the classroom it could be possible, although which parts are problematic may differ from student to student, and thus it would be difficult for the teacher to put this to practice democratically. However, online, as the students are doing it in their own time, and they have control over which parts they need to assess, this is the perfect environment for them to do this. The outcome of their assessment could be recorded  in their listening diaries, or on a wiki, with a link to the material.
    21. 21. Metacognitive "Establish purpose for listening" If the students chose their own listening content then there is less need to establish a purpose for listening as one supposes that the reason they have chosen it is because they want to listen to it. Having said that, one excellent idea for creating purpose is to make a  listening quest, where the student has to understand the content in order to progress to the next stage. The problem with this is that it is the teacher who is creating the purpose rather than the student. "provide opportunities for individual reflection through listening diaries" These diaries could be private, or available for the teacher and maybe classmates to see. This could be done using a wiki or Ning for example. Reflection on their listening could help lead the students away from being "listening blamers" (Lynch, 1996) "Assess the importance of problematic parts and decide whether to ignore them or actively seek clarification" In real life conversation it would be very difficult for students to do this given the lack of a rewind button. In the classroom it could be possible, although which parts are problematic may differ from student to student, and thus it would be difficult for the teacher to put this to practice democratically. However, online, as the students are doing it in their own time, and they have control over which parts they need to assess, this is the perfect environment for them to do this. The outcome of their assessment could be recorded  in their listening diaries, or on a wiki, with a link to the material. Conclusion Some strategies are better accommodated by using web resources whereas others are possible but require a workaround and may be more effective used in the classroom. However, in whatever strategies we use, given that the students might well be working on their own, a greater sense of responsibility needs to be had by them. This can be encouraged by the teacher by raising awareness of Self Management as a metacognitive strategy.
    22. 22. Metacognitive "Establish purpose for listening" If the students chose their own listening content then there is less need to establish a purpose for listening as one supposes that the reason they have chosen it is because they want to listen to it. Having said that, one excellent idea for creating purpose is to make a  listening quest, where the student has to understand the content in order to progress to the next stage. The problem with this is that it is the teacher who is creating the purpose rather than the student. "provide opportunities for individual reflection through listening diaries" These diaries could be private, or available for the teacher and maybe classmates to see. This could be done using a wiki or Ning for example. Reflection on their listening could help lead the students away from being "listening blamers" (Lynch, 1996) "Assess the importance of problematic parts and decide whether to ignore them or actively seek clarification" In real life conversation it would be very difficult for students to do this given the lack of a rewind button. In the classroom it could be possible, although which parts are problematic may differ from student to student, and thus it would be difficult for the teacher to put this to practice democratically. However, online, as the students are doing it in their own time, and they have control over which parts they need to assess, this is the perfect environment for them to do this. The outcome of their assessment could be recorded  in their listening diaries, or on a wiki, with a link to the material. Conclusion Some strategies are better accommodated by using web resources whereas others are possible but require a workaround and may be more effective used in the classroom. However, in whatever strategies we use, given that the students might well be working on their own, a greater sense of responsibility needs to be had by them. This can be encouraged by the teacher by raising awareness of Self Management as a metacognitive strategy.
    23. 23. Opportunities for developing listening strategies on the internet • http://www.englishlistening.com/getPassage.do • http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omlisten/contenidotematico.html • http://www.esl-lab.com/ • http://www.elllo.org/ • More links here and here
    24. 24. Happy listening
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