MDGs: Basics

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What are the "Millennium Development Goals' ?

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MDGs: Basics

  1. 1. About the MDGs: Basics Amira Sobeih [email_address]
  2. 2. What are the Millennium Development Goals ? <ul><li>The Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges . The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations - and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000 . </li></ul>
  3. 4. Did you know? <ul><li>that more than 1 billion people in the world do not have enough to food to eat, clean water to drink, or roofs over their heads? </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 238 million of these people are young children. Can you imagine such a life-a life where you have to struggle to have as little as $1 a day? This is called as living in extreme poverty. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Did you know? <ul><li>Eleven million children below age five still die every year from preventable causes – about 30,000 a day. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 1a: Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Poverty gap ratio </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Target 1b: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Employment-to-population ratio </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment </li></ul><ul><li>Target 1c: Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age </li></ul><ul><li>1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption </li></ul>
  6. 8. Did you know? <ul><li>that nearly 116 million children in the world do not go to school? Three fifths of these children are young girls. </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for the children not going to school are varied: some cannot afford the education, some have to work to bring in money to support their families, some do not have teachers who can teach them because they have HIV/AIDS, some children don't even have a school because it destroyed due to war or some other natural disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you imagine living near a school but not being able to go to it? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you imagine being 8 or 9 years old and having to work to support a family and not being able to school? </li></ul><ul><li>The second goal of the Millennium Development campaign is to help all children achieve universal primary education. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 2a: Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men </li></ul>
  8. 11. Did you know? <ul><li>that nearly 116 million children in the world do not go to school? Three fifths of these children are young girls. </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for the children not going to school are varied: some cannot afford the education, some have to work to bring in money to support their families, some do not have teachers who can teach them because they have HIV/AIDS, some children don't even have a school because it destroyed due to war or some other natural disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you imagine living near a school but not being able to go to it? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you imagine being 8 or 9 years old and having to work to support a family and not being able to school? </li></ul><ul><li>The second goal of the Millennium Development campaign is to help all children achieve universal primary education. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 3a: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament </li></ul>
  10. 14. Did you know? <ul><li>By the end of 2001, an estimated 13 million children under 15 had lost one or both parents to AIDS in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. </li></ul>
  11. 15. Did you know? <ul><li>Did you know that about 30,000 children die each day around the world due to preventable illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections? </li></ul><ul><li>It is really sad that many of them die because they cannot afford a simple one-time vaccine that costs less than a quarter. </li></ul><ul><li>This amounts to about 10 million child deaths per year, many of them under the age of five. </li></ul><ul><li>Astonishingly, one child in ten dies before his or her fifth birthday in developing countries in comparison to one child in every 143 in developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't you think that every child has a right to live regardless of where he or she is born? The fourth goal of the Millennium Development campaign focuses on reducing child mortality. </li></ul>
  12. 16. Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 4a: Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Under-five mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles </li></ul>
  13. 18. Did you know? <ul><li>Nearly one billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water. </li></ul>
  14. 19. Imagine !! <ul><li>Imagine being a 12 year old girl living in a country where you could get married at 12. Yes, that happens to several young girls in some developing countries. Girls who should enjoy being a child, being in school, or playing with friends are expected to be an adult and raise a family. When these young girls, whose bodies are still growing and developing, get pregnant, they are forced to nurture growing babies in their own growing, still under-developed bodies. To complicate this, many of these young mothers do not have access to doctors or emergency medical care when they most need it. Needless to say, these girls often die during childbirth due to complications from pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is shocking when you realize that almost one mother dies every minute of the day in some part of the world due to this. As a result, the Millennium Development campaign realized something needs to be done about improving maternal health. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Goal 5 : Improve maternal health <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 5a: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio </li></ul><ul><li>5.1 Maternal mortality ratio </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Target 5b: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health </li></ul><ul><li>5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate </li></ul><ul><li>5.4 Adolescent birth rate </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) </li></ul><ul><li>5.6 Unmet need for family planning </li></ul>
  16. 22. Did you know? <ul><li>At a minimum, 1 million people die from malaria each year. Governments should promote the use of essential antimalarial intervention tools such as medicines, insecticides, insecticide-treated nets, and indoor residual spraying. Such public goods should be available free of cost to populations at risk for malaria. </li></ul><ul><li>These efforts will require donor community participation to mobilize resources, as malaria-endemic countries cannot afford to implement these programs on their own.[Source: The Millennium Project] </li></ul>
  17. 23. Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 6a: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years </li></ul><ul><li>6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex </li></ul><ul><li>6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Target 6b: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it </li></ul><ul><li>6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs </li></ul>
  18. 24. Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 6c: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases </li></ul><ul><li>6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria </li></ul><ul><li>6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets </li></ul><ul><li>6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs </li></ul><ul><li>6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course </li></ul>
  19. 26. Did you know? <ul><li>Nearly one billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water. </li></ul>
  20. 27. Did you know? <ul><li>About 2.4 billion people lack access to a toilet. </li></ul><ul><li>Two million people die daily from infections spread through contaminated water or lack of access to a toilet. </li></ul>
  21. 28. Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 7a: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resourcesTarget 7b: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss </li></ul><ul><li>7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest </li></ul><ul><li>7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) </li></ul><ul><li>7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances </li></ul><ul><li>7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 Proportion of total water resources used </li></ul><ul><li>7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected </li></ul><ul><li>7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Target 7c: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source </li></ul><ul><li>7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility </li></ul><ul><li>Target 7d: Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums </li></ul>
  22. 30. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development <ul><li>Poor countries rely on aid, debt relief, and trade as major ways to pay for health care, jobs, education, and several other basic services. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals 1 to 7 can only be achieved by a strong partnership between poor and rich countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know that the US government spent nearly $900 billion in arms in 2003 alone? On average, $300 billion is spent by developed, rich countries to support local agricultural producers. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve the MDGs by 2015 , only an additional $70 billion per year in aid is needed additionally. To come up with this additional $70 billion, rich countries agreed to work towards giving 0.7% of their Gross National Income (GNI) to help the poor countries. Despite the fact that this was agreed upon several years ago, only five countries ( Sweden , Denmark , the Netherlands , Norway , and Luxembourg ) have managed to achieve this goal. The eighth goal of the Millennium Campaign addresses this issue. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8a: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8b: Address the special needs of the least developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8c: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) </li></ul>
  24. 32. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8d: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. Official development assistance (ODA) </li></ul><ul><li>8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income </li></ul><ul><li>8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) </li></ul><ul><li>8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied </li></ul><ul><li>8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Market access </li></ul><ul><li>8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty </li></ul><ul><li>8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product </li></ul><ul><li>8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Debt sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) </li></ul><ul><li>8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services </li></ul>
  25. 33. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development <ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8e: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis </li></ul><ul><li>Target 8f: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications </li></ul><ul><li>8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population </li></ul><ul><li>8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population </li></ul><ul><li>8.16 Internet users per 100 population </li></ul>
  26. 35. Did You Know? <ul><li>The Millennium Project recommends that civil society organizations should contribute actively to designing policies, delivering services, and monitoring progress. [Source: The Millennium Project] </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>“ Future is about Present that has to be re-organized. We don’t only need to envision it but to allow it to happen.” St Exupery </li></ul>

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