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Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
Social Networking in Government
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Social Networking in Government

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Results of a Web-based survey of federal, state and county/municipal government agencies conducted by the Human Capital Institute and SABA.

Results of a Web-based survey of federal, state and county/municipal government agencies conducted by the Human Capital Institute and SABA.

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  • 1. Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Human Capital Institute January 2010
  • 2. Social Networking in Government — Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Executive Summary Social networking (SN) has become the new online rage. Blogs, wikis, RSS feeds and social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn have provided creative ways to recruit, engage, connect and retain employees. They have also provided an opportunity to facilitate strategic knowledge sharing across organizations and government agencies. Most SN tools are Web-based and provide a variety of ways for users that share interests interests and/ or activities to interact. Users can share best practices and build communities of practice. These tools provide e-mail and instant messaging services — constant connectivity. SN tools can help with the current challenges facing today’s government agencies such as brain drain from a retiring workforce, the need to create inter-agency knowledge sharing and an increased need to imbed talent tools where the work is getting done. Despite the growing consensus that social networking tools can improve talent management, performance and service to customers (or, for government agencies, the affected public), recent studies by the Human Capital Institute (HCI) and others show that, in general, government agencies lag behind the private sector in their adoption of social networking (SN) tools — see Figure 1. 2 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Figure 1. Percentage of Organizations Using Various Social Networking Tools Private sector results from Fall 2008 study. Public sector results from current Summer 2009 study. **Note: in the current survey of government agency use of SN tools, respondents were asked if they used threaded discussion boards, message boards and/or discussion threads. Since some respondents may not differentiate between these three types of tools, the results are combined — meaning that the 26 percent may be an overestimate of government use of threaded discussion boards and the actual gap between private and public sector use may be even greater. 26% Threaded discussion boards 33% 23% Instant messaging/Chat 54% 31% Blogs/Wikis 39% 32% Government Communities of practice groups 54% Corporate 29% Don't use social networking tools 15% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% n=192 (private sector); n=607 (public sector) For those with an interest and stake in better leveraging the capabilities of Web 2.0 and SN tools in government, it is critical to better understand the current state of use of SN tools, future expectations and the factors that influence both. To explore these issues, HCI and Saba partnered on a research study to explore: • ow many (and which) SN tools are being currently used in government workplaces; H • he current effectiveness and future importance of SN tools to carry out key talent management T and performance functions in various government workplaces; • he critical barriers to the implementation and expansion of the tools in government — as well T as the best practices for overcoming these barriers. To discover the answers, a Web-based survey was completed by 607 respondents from federal, state and county/municipal government agencies. This report is the first in a three-part series on the use of social networking tools in government and will provide an overview of their current and future use. For this study, we differentiated between social networking functions and social networking public Web sites. SN functions — such as communities of practice, blogs and threaded discussion boards — are general approaches to creating and using social networks and can be implemented with publicly available or customized organizational software. Social networking Web sites — such as LinkedIn and Facebook — are publicly available Web sites designed for general social networking that can be used by agencies for some of their own social networking needs. 3 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Key Findings: Overall Use of Social Networking Tools in the Government Workplace • ixty-six (66) percent of government workplaces use some type of SN tool — and sixty-five (65) S percent of those are using more than one tool. • mployee Learning and Development and Public Communications are the work functions for E which SN tools are most frequently used. • unctions aligned with knowledge sharing and informal learning and development are the F most likely to be effectively conducted via SN tools. • Workforce management and project planning are the functions least likely to be effectively conducted via SN tools. • ommunities of practice/groups are the SN tools most frequently used — indicating the goal C of improving collaboration. • overnment workers rate the future importance of SN tools higher than the current G effectiveness — highlighting a major opportunity for future expansion. • inkedIn, Facebook and Twitter are the three most popular SN public Web sites — highlighting L the value that many organizations find in leveraging already existing tools for their own purposes. Key Findings: The Future of Social Networking Tools in the Government Workplace • ecurity restrictions are the major barrier to future use of SN tools — many workplaces simply S bar all SN tools, while others place restrictions on what SN tools can be used or the employees who are allowed to use them. • or those workplaces willing/able to overcome security concerns, there are high expectations F for the improvements in talent management and performance that SN tools can achieve. Background: Social Networks and Government Today For most people, in and out of the government workplace, social networks primarily are one of the major Web sites designed to connect people, such as MySpace and Facebook. These sites serve as feature-rich chat boards in which an individual’s site can be connected to a large group of “friends.” LinkedIn, a Web site with growing popularity among professionals, is similar in that it also provides tools to easily create groups of connected people. It also emphasizes sections for jobs, service provider recommendations and job-related questions. However, SN tools are not limited to public Web sites. They also include very specific tools, some modeled on the public sites and others using other aspects of Web 2.0 technology that can be used within an organization to build better collaboration, improve employee learning and development and make government information more accessible to the public. 4 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Several government agencies are taking advantage of these Web 2.0 tools for recruiting and talent management, as well as improving job performance.1 For example, the CIA leverages Facebook as a method of attracting college students to apply for internships or jobs. In contrast, the Environmental Protection Agency created a Facebook network for employees to achieve better talent management — as a way to share knowledge, build collaboration and improve employee engagement. Other agencies are using public social networking Web sites as models for their own sites. NASA’s CoLab program involved building its own collaborative workspace site to develop and support both online and offline groups and communities of practice. This allows its own internal groups to form a collaboration network and link to non-NASA groups of like-minded, technologically knowledgeable people and tap into the expertise of non-NASA scientists and engineers. Using social networking tools is not limited to U.S. federal agencies. State, county and municipal governments are also getting into the act of leveraging these tools to carry out important functions. During summer 2009, adjoining counties in Texas — Grayson, Collin and Cooke — have started their own Facebook and Twitter sites to make it easier for the public to access important information — such as that provided by the counties’ emergency management offices.2 The various examples above highlight a major issue in the organizational use of SN tools — that between internally focused (employee and other agencies) versus externally focused (citizens and business).3 Internally focused applications such as in-house blogs, wikis and discussion boards for knowledge sharing or employee development are, in many ways, easier to implement since there are fewer security issues with which to be concerned — e.g., the unintentional access of private information by the public. However, the externally focused uses are those that are more directly linked with a primary purpose of many agencies — providing information and service to the public. Most government agencies that are using SN tools are likely to be using them for both purposes — see Figure 2. However, in Part II of this series, we will discuss the various ways that SN tool use diverges among (and within) government agencies. 1 Guide to Managing U.S. Government Web Sites, Social Networking and Government from Webcontent.gov, accessed 6/22/09. 2 Many local government agencies now on Twitter and Facebook, available at: <http://www.kxii.com/news/headlines/51938567.html> (posted July 28, 2009). 3 Chang, Ai-Mei and Kannan, P. K. Leveraging Web 2.0 in Government, IMB Center for The Business of Government, 2008. 5 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Figure 2. Government agencies are most likely to use SN tools for employee learning and development — an internally focused purpose — and communications/public relations functions — an externally focused work function. n=387 Despite the many positive examples of how government agencies are currently using SN tools — whether for internally or externally focused actions — the fact remains that the government sector is still lagging behind the private sector in both its overall use of these tools. This is apparent from several recent studies, including our own research at the Human Capital Institute. In Fall 2008, HCI conducted a research study of the extent and uses of social networking tools by the private sector.4 Figure 1 highlights the level of use (or lack of use) of major social networking functions and tools in the private sector (from our Fall 2008 study) and the public sector (from our current research). Clearly, the private sector is ahead of government agencies in the use of social networking tools — with the public sector only leading in the percentage not using any SN tools at all. Given that the use of SN tools has only increased globally since Fall 2008, it is likely that the percentage of corporate users of various tools is even greater today — indicating that the gap may be even larger than the figure shows. In the remainder of this report, we explore the details of the current use of SN tools in government to better understand how (and how well) they are being used, why they are not being used more and what is needed for government agencies to better leverage the value of SN tools for both internal and external functions. Social Networking (SN) Tools in Government — What Is Being Used and How As we discussed previously (see Figure 1), the use of social networking tools in government continues to lag behind the private sector — with 29 percent of the respondents in this study telling us that they do not use SN tools in their office (compared to 15 percent of respondents in our previous study on 4 Schweyer, Allan. Leveraging Social Networking & Web 2.0 Collaboration Tools in Enterprises, 2008, available at: http://www.hci.org. 6 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 7. the use of SN tools in the corporate setting). However, while they may be trailing the private sector, the fact remains that two-thirds of all government agencies are using SN tools (Figure 3). When most people — in and out of the government workplace — hear “social networking,” they think Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn or a host of other Web sites that sprung up with the advent of Web 2.0. However, many individuals, including those actively engaged in integrating SN tools into their own workplace, understand that it also means the use of many types of social networking functions — either independently or connected — that build and enhance connections among people. These include functions such as: • ommunities of practice/groups C • logs and/or wikis B • nstant messaging and/or chat I • ikis W • SS feeds R • hreaded discussion boards, discussion threads and message boards. T Given that not all uses of social networking involve using one of the major public Web sites, we asked our survey respondents to tell us about their use of both SN functions and SN public Web sites. Figure 4 highlights the SN functions used by the 66 percent of government workplaces using social networking, while Figure 5 shows the uses of the major SN Web sites. Clearly, the improvement of employee collaboration through the creation of communities of practice or other work groups is the most used social networking function. As far as which social networking Web sites are used, there is no real surprise — the leaders in our survey are also the most commonly used by the private sector and the public as a whole and are the ones (e.g., LinkedIn, Facebook) which we previously highlighted in the examples of SN use in government. In addition, 65 percent of government workplaces that are using SN functions and/or Web sites are using more than one — usually two or three but, in a few cases, as many as nine different functions and seven different Web sites. Figure 3. Percentage of respondents reporting that their workplaces use — or don’t use — social networking tools. n=607 7 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Figure 4. Most used social networking functions. Percentages based on total respondents (users and non-users of social networking tools). Figure 5. Most used social networking Web sites. Percentages based on total respondents (users and non-users of social networking tools). 8 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Much of how SN tools are implemented in an agency will depend upon who makes the decision (Figure 6). To explore this issue, we asked our respondents to tell us where, within the agency, decisions on which SN tools to use were made. For 37 percent of respondents, the decision is made at the national office, which sets a standard guideline for social networking use across the agency. However, 32 percent of government workplaces possess local control over which SN tools they use while another 21 percent use a hybrid decision-making process — often with headquarters setting general guidelines or rules but allowing local offices a wide degree of discretion on how to implement social networking. Figure 6. Where in Agency Are Social Networking Tool Decisions Made? n=378 Regardless of who makes the decision, in most cases when an agency does decide to implement or expand on its use of social networking for talent management, improving job performance or communicating with the public, the decisions will (or, at least, should be) driven by the current effectiveness and perceived future importance of the various tools to the agency. In the next section, we will explore how current users view the ability of various SN tools to improve their agency’s performance — as well as the variation in this performance among and within agencies. Current Effectiveness and Future Importance of SN Tools The growth of SN tool use in the government sector, just as in the private sector, will to a large degree depend upon the ROI achieved. That ultimately depends upon how effectively agencies use SN tools to carry out many critical talent management, performance enhancement and public interaction functions. Table 1 lists 16 critical workplace functions. For each function we asked all respondents who use SN tools in their workplace to tell us the current effectiveness and future importance of their SN tools for carrying out these functions. 9 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Table 1. Some Workplace Functions for Which Social Networking Tools Can Be Used Respondents of workplaces using SN tools were asked to rate the current effectiveness and future importance of their tools in carrying out each of the following functions: Talent Management and Performance Functions Interacting With the Public Formal learning Increasing leadership to Knowledge collection, Recruiting and development employee communication sharing or dissemination Informal learning Encouraging collaboration Project planning Improving service and development across dispersed groups to public Improving Providing convenient access Creating employee Creating more employee to subject-matter expertise camaraderie efficient feedback productivity from public Improving Offering a quick and easy Fostering the formation of Imparting a positive workforce means for sharing feedback new professional networks presence to the management outer world via blogging As Figure 7 describes, government agencies are effectively using SN tools for many critical functions today — knowledge sharing, feedback and informal learning and development, in particular. Knowledge sharing and feedback are not surprising since these represent some of the first functions in which social networks have been put to use. The high rating that respondents give to informal learning and development (66.5 percent effective/very effective) shows that many agencies are learning how to leverage the knowledge sharing and feedback functions of SN tools for other purposes — in this case providing an effective, if informal, framework for talent development. (see Part III of this series of reports on Social Networking in Government). In contrast to the functions at the top of the list of Figure 7, SN tools are much less effective at carrying out performance-related, work functions. For example, improving employee productivity, project planning and improving workforce management all received less than 40 percent effective/very effective ratings. Part of the reason for this is certainly that, unlike knowledge sharing and feedback, using SN tools for performance- and project-related functions is relatively new. However, another reason is that some managers still see social networking as a time waster and not as a productivity enhancer — as summarized by one Director of Human Resources at a federal agency as his reason for not widely adopting SN tools: “Concern about the inappropriate use of social networks and our inability at this point to accurately measure and assess their potential distraction from business use and bringing value to the employee’s performance and the overall mission and func- tioning of the agency.” 10 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Figure 7. Overall, SN tools are perceived as being most effective at handling knowledge sharing and communication in internal processes and goals; public communication and recruiting functions are in the mid-range of effectiveness; the use of SN tools for managing work trails behind. n=238. and Our respondents were significantly more positive when it came to rating the future importance of using SN tools for the same functions — see Figure 8. In fact, respondents ranked the future importance of using SN tools for every function higher than they did the current effectiveness — with all but three functions receiving more than 50 percent “Very Important/Critical” rating. This highlights the high degree of optimism that many workers in government have for the future of social networking in their workplaces. This increased optimism included project planning and, in particular, improving workforce management, which jumped from 32 percent to nearly 50 percent positive. In addition, while knowledge sharing, feedback and informal learning and development remain highly rated, some of the biggest gains — from current effectiveness to future importance ratings — were for: • Encouraging collaboration across dispersed groups — highlighting an increased focus on using SN tools to actively develop professional networks. • Improving service to public and creating more efficient feedback from the public — indicating the increasing desire to use SN tools to carry out their public service. 11 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Figure 8. Government agencies’ optimism for the future importance of SN tools to carry out critical workplace functions is higher than their belief in tools’ current effectiveness. n=246 Providing convenient access to subject matter expertise Encouraging collaboration across dispersed groups Knowledge collection, sharing or dissemination Offering a quick and easy means for sharing feedback Informal learning and development Unimportant Somewhat important/Important Improving service to public Very important/Critical Creating more efficient feedback from public Recruiting Fostering the information of new professional networks Increasing leadership to employee communication Creating employee comaraderie Impart a positive presence to the outer world via blogging Improving employee productivity Improving workforce management Formal learning and development Project planning The Future of Social Networking Tools in Government “Social software is considered to be a free resource by half the folks and a security risk by the rest. There seems to be no middle ground.” — An IT Manager at the U.S. Department of Defense We conclude our study with a brief discussion of the future of social networking in the government workplace — the likelihood of growth and the factors that may hinder that growth. We asked respondents to tell us if their workplace was planning to implement or expand the use of SN tools in the future: • es — 28 percent (123 of 437) Y • o — 17 percent (73 of 437) N • nsure — 55 percent (241 of 437) U 12 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 13. The 55 percent who are unsure of SN’s future in their own workplace are, perhaps, the most interesting group. They represent both a challenge and an opportunity for those attempting to increase the use of SN tools in government agencies. The challenge arises from the need to understand the barriers that are holding people back from committing to the future expansion of SN tools in the workplace. The opportunity exists because, if the barriers can be removed, there is the potential for rapid and large-scale adaptation of SN tools. The major barriers to the expansion of SN tools, as told to us by our respondents, are shown in Figure 9. Previous studies of the problems of implementing social networking in government have shown that security concerns are the major roadblock. Our study is no different, with 66 percent of respondents choosing “security restrictions” as one of the greatest barriers. To explore this issue in more detail, we asked those respondents with knowledge of how their agency deals with security concerns to tell us about their approach (see sidebar: Dealing with Social Networking Security Concerns in the Government Workplace). Figure 9. Security restrictions are the #1 barrier to the expansion of SN tools in government agencies. Not surprisingly, our research shows that the barrier is greatest in the Defense Department — but is high among all agencies and all levels of government. Security restrictions 66% Other, higher priorities take precedence 28% Difficulty in building a compelling 27% business case for them Lack of support from senior leadership 26% Lack of expertise in selecting and 25% implementing them Budgetary 21% User adoption 15% Other (specify) 9% Not applicable 7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% The concern over security can be a complex issue, which goes beyond simply securing government agency data, as was made clear to us by one of our respondents, a training and development practitioner in a state government agency: 13 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 14. “In creating a ‘job club,’ am I effectively inviting people to a place where anonymity is lost? Even just giving an email address often reveals a name or location, sometimes age! Having read of misuses and employers seeing inappropriate online photos or language, am I opening a can of worms? These resources are so vast; is it the wave of the future or the greatest waste of time imaginable? Will my own reputation be enhanced or destroyed?” As this quote highlights, security concerns often occur hand in hand with other concerns — such as the fear of productivity loss from people using SN tools for personal purposes, the uncertainty over the actual effectiveness of the tools and the worry about career damage from pushing for tools that fail to return the hope for ROI. However, despite these concerns, most respondents remain hopeful that, once security and other barriers to SN use are lowered or eliminated, that the benefits of SN use will outweigh any potential negatives (Figure 10). Figure 10. What major social network tools do government workers expect to use in the future — and what benefits are they looking for? Better collaboration / communication is the most commonly expected benefit in the future. A means of Better connecting Faster, more Better Better formal Likely to promote communications with and Improves effective Other SN Tool collaboration/ and informal higher employee and networking engaging Responses mentoring knowledge benefits communication learning engagement with the public former transfer and/or suppliers employees (alumni) Blogs 98 57 29 66 67 77 36 13 443 Wikis 59 53 20 74 43 27 12 13 301 Chat/IM 61 21 26 44 44 22 12 11 241 Message 73 38 23 54 49 39 21 12 309 boards Discussion 72 47 37 57 56 30 16 12 327 threads Facebook 63 20 22 38 48 85 41 24 341 MySpace 33 10 9 16 21 39 20 18 166 Twitter 60 17 16 45 40 74 31 19 302 Other 35 21 15 33 25 33 11 26 200 social software 14 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Dealing With Social Networking Security Concerns — Examples From the Government Workplace Dealing with Security Issues: Three Common Approaches (as told to us by respondents) Block All Social Networking Limit Access to a Few Limit Who Can Access SN Tools Tools Selected SN Tools or for a Few to Selected Individuals (a common approach for those Functions workplaces uncertain about the functionality of SN tools) “We are blocked from “Wikis/blogs only allowed on “The organization has accessing social networking internal, secure networks — not authorized one department tools and Web sites.” — to any outside connections.”— to use it to impart company Operations Practitioner in U.S. Senior Manager of HR in U.S. information to our customers. Federal Government Agency Defense Department One concern is that we cannot control what our employees say on a social network.” — Training and Development Director at a U.S. Federal Agency “Typical firewalls and other “Due to security concerns, my “All social networking needs to security measures implemented organization currently makes be limited in scope and tightly by Defense.”— HR Manager in minimal use of social software. managed. Bloggers are limited U.S. Department of Defense Our current use is limited to to two individuals on a site, a Knowledge Management and senior management within application that enables the region must approve of the communication and information use and monitor activity on an sharing among communities ongoing basis.” — Manager at of practice.” — Training and a U.S. Federal Agency Development Director at a U.S. Federal Agency “Unless approved by City “In our department we don’t “In order to participate in some IT Department, access is have social media methods yet of the networks, one must restricted.” — Division but the agency is worried and be invited. Even then, care Manager at a County or is doing things like restricting is shown in the information Municipal Government Agency comments from appearing reported on the networks.” — publicly (they have to be HR Practitioner at a U.S. Federal emailed) and making Twitter Agency only used from within our physical office.” — Operations Practitioner in a U.S. Federal Agency “Social networking use is “The only social networking “Only a select few employees very limited in our agency tool we currently utilize is blogs. have access to Facebook, and controlled by the We at the moment do not allow although access to LinkedIn communication office. readers to comment, nor do is not denied. Twitter is Social networking is the we comment on others’ blog only permitted for our responsibility of the office of posts.” — Recruiter at County Communications Department.” Chief Information Officer so or Municipal Government — HR Practitioner at County or security is always a concern. Agency Municipal Government Agency The measures to control the use of social networking have been with Web filters where the Web sites and tools are blocked from access from the employees.” — IT Manager at U.S. Federal Agency 15 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Recommended Action Plans: The results of this study lead to several key recommendations for action by those thinking about or planning the implementation or expansion of SN tool use in their workplace: • Security concerns are the #1 barrier to future expansion in government and need to be dealt with through implementing a combination of practical guidelines for the secure use of SN tools, the improvement of the safety of existing Web sites and SN tools, and the focused use of SN tools that limit security concerns (e.g., internal discussion boards, wikis, etc.). • he current strengths in government use of SN tools for knowledge sharing and public T communication should be encouraged and enhanced. • nformation about successful uses of SN tools should be widely distributed to encourage I leadership buy-in of SN tools enhancement for underutilized functions. • he success of communities of practice (the leading SN function in our survey) should be T leveraged by using it as a model for increased use of SN tools. Parts II and III in this report series will examine the variation among and within government agencies in the use of SN tools and using these tools for learning and development in the government workplace. 16 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Appendix 1: Research Methodology and Demographics The data for this report came from a Web-based survey emailed to government workers in the HCI member and non-member database. The survey included 5 demographic (concerning both organization and respondent) and 19 multiple choice, likert-scale and extended text response questions divided into four sections: • urrent use and management patterns C • ffectiveness and importance of SN tools E • se for leadership and development U • xpectations and barriers to future use E We collected data from 607 respondents that included all levels of government — from municipal to federal (defense and non-defense). The demographic breakdown of respondents is shown in Figures A.1. – A.4. Figure A.1. < 2,500 employees 2,500 to 7,500 employees 7,500 to 20,000 employees > 20,000 employees No response Figure A.2. U.S. Department of Defense 2% 5% U.S. Federal government agency 7% (Not Department of Defense) 17% U.S. state government agency 41% U.S. county or municipal 28% government agency Government contractor Non-American government or other 17 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Figure A.3. 15% 14% Director Senior manager 15% 27% Manager Supervisor 19% Practitioner 10% Other Figure A.4. Division or program manager 16% 22% Operations Recruiting 22% 16% Training and development 8% Other human resources 16% Other 18 Social Networking in Government: Opportunities & Challenges Part I: An Overview of Opportunities & Challenges Copyright © 2010 Human Capital Institute. All rights reserved.

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