Ancient Egyptian Project


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Ancient Egyptian Project

  1. 1. Project by: Ivanne Umali Room Number: 8-73 Egyptian Ancient Architecture
  2. 2. <ul><li>For at least ten thousand years, the Nile Valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed as vast array of diverse structures which we refer to as Ancient Egyptian culture. The architectural monuments, which include the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza, are among the largest and famous. </li></ul>Introduction
  3. 3. The Giza Pyramid Complex
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>This complex of ancient monuments is located some 8 kilometers (5 mi) inland into the desert from old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of Cairo city center. </li></ul><ul><li>This Ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of Pyramid of Khufu, the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre, and the relatively modest-sized Pyrmaid of Menkaure, along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as “queens” pyramid, and the Great Sphinx. </li></ul><ul><li>The pyramids, which were built in the Fourth Dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Pyramid, which was probably completed c. 2580 BC, is the oldest and largest of the pyramids, and is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the World. </li></ul><ul><li>With few openings, the pyramids had complex mazes of tunnels and rooms all hidden by the massive hunks of stone. </li></ul>Description
  5. 5. Karnak
  6. 6. Description <ul><li>The temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks of the River Nile some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of four main parts, the Precint of Amon-Re , the Precint of Montu , the Precint of Mut , and the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of four main parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precint of Mut, the Precint of Amon-re and Luxor temple. </li></ul><ul><li>The key difference between Karnak and and most of the other temples and sites of Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction work began in the 16 th century BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately, 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and numbers of features is overwhelming. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Precint of Amon-Re <ul><li>The Precint of Amon-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The precint is by far the largest of these and the only one that is open to the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>The temple complex is dedicated to the principal god of the Theban Triad, Amun, in the form of Amun-Re. </li></ul><ul><li>The site occupies roughly 250, 000 m 2 , containing so many structures and monuments. </li></ul><ul><li>Some parts of the complex are closed or semi-closed, partially large parts of the North/South Axis (VIII, IX, and X Pylon), as they are under active excavation or restoration. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole southeast corner is semi-closed while the northwest corner is a museum that requires an additional ticket to visit. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Precint of Montu <ul><li>Precint of Montu, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the main enclosed areas that make up immense Karnak Temple Complex. </li></ul><ul><li>It is dedicated to the Egyptian god, Montu, the child of Amun and Mut. </li></ul><ul><li>The area covers about 20, 000 m 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Most monuments are poorly preserved. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Precint of Mut <ul><li>The Precint of Mut, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex and occupies some 150, 000 m 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>It is dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, Mut, the mother goddess. </li></ul><ul><li>The area in which the precint is located, originally was known as Isheru (or Asher). </li></ul><ul><li>Isheru was the name of the spring-fed, crescent shaped lake on the site of this portion of the temple complex. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1 st century, it use steadily had declined and when worship of Mut stopped, so did the function of the complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The area was visited and surveyed by Napoleon’s expedition in 1799-1801, and then by The Royal Prussian Expedition of 1842-1845, which was led by Karl Richard Lepsius. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Temple of Amenhotep IV <ul><li>The Temple of Amenhotep IV at Karnak in Luxor, Egypt, was constructed during the first four years of the reign of the Egyptian, Pharaoh Akhenaten, when he still referred to himself as Amenhotep IV. </li></ul><ul><li>It was constructed outside the boundaries of the Precint of Amon-Re, to the east. </li></ul><ul><li>The main temple was Gempateen, which means, “The Sun Disc is Found in the Estate of the God Aten”. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little of these buildings remains, they were built quickly, using Talatat blocks, and therefore easily be demolished and reused as core for late structures. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gampateen appears to have no roof and its offering tables were exposed to direct sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>In this building (or associated with it) were red granite and sandstone statues of Akhenaten, red granite offering tables and other statues, including the sphinx inscribed with the name of Aten. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Luxor Temple
  12. 12. Description <ul><li>Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). </li></ul><ul><li>Construction work on the temple began during the reign of Amenhotep III in the 14 th century BC. Horemheb and Tutankhamen added columns, states, and friezes – and Akhenaten had earlier obliterated his father’s cartouches and installed a shrine to the Aten – but the only major expansion effort took place under Ramesses II some 100 years after the first stones were put in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Luxor is thus unique among the main Egyptian temple complexes in having only two pharaohs leave their mark on its architectural structure. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Bibliography