Part 2:Understanding Faculty Members and Learners and Web 2.0 Drs. Patricia McGee & Veronica Diaz
Asking the right question
Mapping the Learner Experience SEMESTER BREAK
Mapping the Instructor Experience SEMESTER BREAK
People - Data - Things (P-D-T)
Over the past 10 years, teachers and students have increasingly relied on technology to communicate. At the same time there is a perception that teacher’s time on campus has declined. There is an administrative concern that student needs outside of class are not being met, and that lack of campus presence is an indication of teacher apathy.
What people should be included?
What data should be analyzed?
What things are involved?
May have expectations from prior experience, personal style/needs, disciplinary perspective.
Have a range of technical abilities.
Require just-in-need supports.
Informal and “non-traditional” A part of ubiquitous networks Not so enamored of technology but believe tech skills may be an advantage (younger over older) learners are also …
We regularly survey students about technology use:
70% never used a PDA APX 50% never edited video or webpage using WYSWYG APX 50% never sent a picture via phone 75% never email via phone 68% never use phone internet Most do not blog, wiki, have a web site, etc. Digital experts?
Alt hough 66.1% have Internet phone most do not use (<18%; <1/4 use PDA) 69% < 20 hrs per week online 85.2% use social networks 1/3 create audio/video & games (mostly males) 8.8% use virtual worlds 1/3 use blogs, video/image sharing sites, etc. Digital experts?
Determine the extent of information needed
Access the needed information effectively and efficiently
Evaluate information and its sources critically
Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base
Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally
21 st century literacy?
My institution has literacy standards that all students must attain:
Only some departments
Learners as novice
Focus on discrete details
Capture empirical information
Focus on the use of formulas and previously learned strategies
Mental Function and Skill Level: Five Stage Model (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1980, p. 15) Novice Competent Proficient Expert Master Recollection Non-situational Situational Situational Situational Situational Recognition Decomposed Decomposed Holistic Holistic Holistic Decision Analytical Analytical Analytical Intuitive Intuitive Awareness Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Absorbed
Two Dimensions of Transfer and Learning Routine Expert Adaptive Expert Novice Efficiency Frustrated Novice (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000)
Supporting developing expertise
Move from concrete/discrete to generalized patterns
Assess degree of expertise
Provide opportunities for learners to aggregate achievements, collect evidence, apply course learning outside of class
Disciplinary Foci Hard Natural Sciences Hard Applied Sciences
Testing of ideas in linear form of argumentation.
Reliance on facts, principles, and concepts.
Problem-solving and practical skills
Emphasis on integration and application of existing knowledge
(White & Liccardi, 2006)
Learner Preference Hard Natural Sciences Hard Applied Sciences
Objective tests (also VLEs)
Support the mastery of facts, principles and concepts.
Quantitative, closed assessments
(White & Liccardi, 2006)
IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT?
Learners: Disciplinary Foci Soft Pure Soft Applied
Broad command of intellectual ideas.
Emphasis on creativity in thinking and fluency of expression.
Emphasis on personal growth and intellectual breadth.
Development of reflective practice and lifelong learning.
(White & Liccardi, 2006)
Learner Preference Soft Pure Soft Applied
Role play and games
Access to open web
Access to online journals
Support the development of argumentation skills and critical thinking
(White & Liccardi, 2006)
What best supports novices?
Are learners ready for:
Technology mediated interaction?
New course designs?
Learner Supports & Assessment
Access to online ICT services (Internet, email, server, CMS, etc.)
Production (assignments, presentations, projects, etc.)
Access to online academic resources (library, helpdesk, identifications)
Learning technologies (study skills, time management, etc.)
Styles & Support Tech Implication Possible Support Independent Portal, web site, portfolio, blog, L/CMS FAQ, walk-in help, email, video tutorial Dependent L/CMS, IM, email FAQs, help forum, phone help, walk-in help Competitive Portfolio, blog, presentation tools Mentor others, contribute to FAQ Collaborative Discussions, chat, wiki, L/CMS, VOIP FAQs, email, phone help, walk-in help Avoidant Portfolio, VOIP FAQ, walk-in help, email, video tutorial Participant Open forums, IM, VOIP, wiki Walk-in help, email, phone help
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACULTY DEVELOPMENT
Emerging Technology Use
Student and faculty surveys
Use of tools
Demographic information (age, gender, years of study/employment, and program of study)
Student and faculty focus groups or observation
Classroom use of technology
Use of course management systems
Preferences, limitations, and needs
PowerPoint presentations or course handouts can indicate areas of technology use and can reveal instructional styles
Web 2.0 and Affordances with Students
Students are more comfortable with and have a tolerance for “figuring” out the technology
Students can deal with trial and error approach to use and change in general
Students have a broad exposure to a variety of different tools
MICHAEL WESCH: MEDIATED CULTURES COURSE SITE
Characteristics Type Focus Expert Functions as knowledge expert and transmits information to learner who becomes more competent under the instructor’s tutelage. Formal Authority Focuses on correct and appropriate procedures , serves as knowledge expert who is determined to provide necessary feedback to learner within a structured and standardized environment. Personal Model Focus is providing personal examples and modeling appropriate and correct behavior . Facilitator Teacher-learner interaction takes place in a probing and interactive learning environment . Supports learner’s decision within a consultant role. Delegator Desire for learner to act autonomously with as little input as necessary.
Support Teaching Style Preferred Approach Implied Support Expert/Formal Authority (38%) Dependent, Participant, Competitive One-on-one, hands-on, reward/acknowledgement Personal Model/Expert/Formal Authority (22%) Participant, Dependent, Competitive Hands-on, one-on-one, reward/acknowledgement Facilitator/Personal Model/Expert (17%) Collaborative, Participative, Independent Small group or peer/mentor, hands-on, tutorial/reference materials Delegator/Facilitator/Expert (15%) Independent, Collaborative/Participant Tutorial/reference materials, small group or peer/mentor, hands-on
Integrated Technology Adoption and Diffusion Model (Sherry, Billig, & Giiibson, 2000)
Web 2.0 and the Novice Faculty Member
“ Context-free features”
Feedback and scaffolding
Discrete and non-ambiguous examples
Increasing opportunities for practice
WEB 2.0 CLASSIFICATIONS Communicative To share ideas, information, and creations • Blogs • Audioblogs • Videoblogs • IM-type tools • Podcasts • Webcams Collaborative To work with others for a specific purpose in a shared work area • Editing/writing tools • Virtual communities of practice • Wikis Documentative To collect and/or present evidence of experiences, thinking over time, productions, etc. • Blogs • Videoblogs • E-portfolios Generative To create something new that can be seen and/or used by others • Mashups • VCOPs • Virtual Learning Worlds Interactive To exchange information, ideas, resources, materials • Learning objectives • Social bookmarking • Virtual communities of practice • Virtual Learning Worlds
A Network of Support
Tools not necessarily developed for an educational audience
No obligation to users
Require separate logins/accounts/fragmentation
No centralized institutional support (usually)
Reliance on internet connection (high speed)
Lack of security
Variety of use and selection of tools could overwhelm students; lack of a common experience across courses
Intellectual property/copyright issues
Instructional Technology Challenges
The technology-adoption cycle
Lack of integrated technology tools
Learners’ changing expectations
Institutional changes to technology commitments
Activity: Data, Data, Data
Given examples of students and faculty members, how can you best support their utilization and integration of Web 2.0 technologies?
Given your responses, what kinds of services are needed