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Educause 08 Part 2

Educause 08 Part 2






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Educause 08 Part 2 Educause 08 Part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Part 2:Understanding Faculty Members and Learners and Web 2.0 Drs. Patricia McGee & Veronica Diaz
  • Asking the right question
  • Mapping the Learner Experience SEMESTER BREAK
  • Mapping the Instructor Experience SEMESTER BREAK
  • People - Data - Things (P-D-T)
    • Over the past 10 years, teachers and students have increasingly relied on technology to communicate. At the same time there is a perception that teacher’s time on campus has declined. There is an administrative concern that student needs outside of class are not being met, and that lack of campus presence is an indication of teacher apathy.
    • What people should be included?
    • What data should be analyzed?
    • What things are involved?
  • Learners…
    • Are intergenerational.
    • May have expectations from prior experience, personal style/needs, disciplinary perspective.
    • Have a range of technical abilities.
    • Require just-in-need supports.
  • Informal and “non-traditional” A part of ubiquitous networks Not so enamored of technology but believe tech skills may be an advantage (younger over older) learners are also …
  • Poll
    • We regularly survey students about technology use:
    • Yes
    • No
  • 70% never used a PDA APX 50% never edited video or webpage using WYSWYG APX 50% never sent a picture via phone 75% never email via phone 68% never use phone internet Most do not blog, wiki, have a web site, etc. Digital experts?
  • Alt hough 66.1% have Internet phone most do not use (<18%; <1/4 use PDA) 69% < 20 hrs per week online 85.2% use social networks 1/3 create audio/video & games (mostly males) 8.8% use virtual worlds 1/3 use blogs, video/image sharing sites, etc. Digital experts?
  • Information Literacy?
    • Determine the extent of information needed
    • Access the needed information effectively and efficiently
    • Evaluate information and its sources critically
    • Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base
    • Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
    • Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally
  • 21 st century literacy?
  • Poll
    • My institution has literacy standards that all students must attain:
    • Yes
    • No
    • Only some departments
  • Learners as novice
    • Focus on discrete details
    • Capture empirical information
    • Focus on the use of formulas and previously learned strategies
    • Operate at lower levels of thinking
    • Caveat: Learners are not novices at everything
  • Novice-expert continuum Routine Expertise Adaptive Expertise Tests, papers, experiments, projects, internships, fellowships, mentoring
  • Mental Function and Skill Level: Five Stage Model (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1980, p. 15) Novice Competent Proficient Expert Master Recollection Non-situational Situational Situational Situational Situational Recognition Decomposed Decomposed Holistic Holistic Holistic Decision Analytical Analytical Analytical Intuitive Intuitive Awareness Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Absorbed
  • Two Dimensions of Transfer and Learning Routine Expert Adaptive Expert Novice Efficiency Frustrated Novice (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000)
  • Supporting developing expertise
    • Move from concrete/discrete to generalized patterns
    • Assess degree of expertise
    • Provide opportunities for learners to aggregate achievements, collect evidence, apply course learning outside of class
  • Disciplinary Foci Hard Natural Sciences Hard Applied Sciences
    • Natural:
    • Logical reasoning.
    • Testing of ideas in linear form of argumentation.
    • Reliance on facts, principles, and concepts.
    • Applied:
    • Problem-solving and practical skills
    • Emphasis on integration and application of existing knowledge
    (White & Liccardi, 2006)
  • Learner Preference Hard Natural Sciences Hard Applied Sciences
    • Online tutorials
    • Reference materials
    • Objective tests (also VLEs)
    • Support the mastery of facts, principles and concepts.
    • Quantitative, closed assessments
    (White & Liccardi, 2006)
  • Learners: Disciplinary Foci Soft Pure Soft Applied
    • Pure
    • Broad command of intellectual ideas.
    • Emphasis on creativity in thinking and fluency of expression.
    • Applied:
    • Emphasis on personal growth and intellectual breadth.
    • Development of reflective practice and lifelong learning.
    (White & Liccardi, 2006)
  • Learner Preference Soft Pure Soft Applied
    • Synchronous discussions
    • Role play and games
    • Access to open web
    • Access to online journals
    • Support the development of argumentation skills and critical thinking
    • Qualitative, Open
    (White & Liccardi, 2006)
  • What best supports novices?
  • Learning Readiness
    • Are learners ready for:
    • Online learning?
    • Technology mediated interaction?
    • Self-regulation?
    • New course designs?
    • Independent learning?
    • Self-assessment
  • Learner Supports & Assessment
    • Technical
    • Access to online ICT services (Internet, email, server, CMS, etc.)
    • Production (assignments, presentations, projects, etc.)
    • Access to online academic resources (library, helpdesk, identifications)
    • Learning technologies (study skills, time management, etc.)
  • Styles & Support Tech Implication Possible Support Independent Portal, web site, portfolio, blog, L/CMS FAQ, walk-in help, email, video tutorial Dependent L/CMS, IM, email FAQs, help forum, phone help, walk-in help Competitive Portfolio, blog, presentation tools Mentor others, contribute to FAQ Collaborative Discussions, chat, wiki, L/CMS, VOIP FAQs, email, phone help, walk-in help Avoidant Portfolio, VOIP FAQ, walk-in help, email, video tutorial Participant Open forums, IM, VOIP, wiki Walk-in help, email, phone help
  • No Yes
  • Emerging Technology Use
    • Student and faculty surveys
      • Use of tools
      • Teaching approaches
      • Demographic information (age, gender, years of study/employment, and program of study)
    • Student and faculty focus groups or observation
      • Classroom use of technology
      • Use of course management systems
      • Preferences, limitations, and needs
    • Document analysis
      • Annual reports
      • Lesson plans
      • Web pages
      • PowerPoint presentations or course handouts can indicate areas of technology use and can reveal instructional styles
  • Web 2.0 and Affordances with Students
    • Students are more comfortable with and have a tolerance for “figuring” out the technology
    • Students can deal with trial and error approach to use and change in general
    • Students have a broad exposure to a variety of different tools
  • No Yes
  • Characteristics Type Focus Expert Functions as knowledge expert and transmits information to learner who becomes more competent under the instructor’s tutelage. Formal Authority Focuses on correct and appropriate procedures , serves as knowledge expert who is determined to provide necessary feedback to learner within a structured and standardized environment. Personal Model Focus is providing personal examples and modeling appropriate and correct behavior . Facilitator Teacher-learner interaction takes place in a probing and interactive learning environment . Supports learner’s decision within a consultant role. Delegator Desire for learner to act autonomously with as little input as necessary.
  • Support Teaching Style Preferred Approach Implied Support Expert/Formal Authority (38%) Dependent, Participant, Competitive One-on-one, hands-on, reward/acknowledgement Personal Model/Expert/Formal Authority (22%) Participant, Dependent, Competitive Hands-on, one-on-one, reward/acknowledgement Facilitator/Personal Model/Expert (17%) Collaborative, Participative, Independent Small group or peer/mentor, hands-on, tutorial/reference materials Delegator/Facilitator/Expert (15%) Independent, Collaborative/Participant Tutorial/reference materials, small group or peer/mentor, hands-on
  • Integrated Technology Adoption and Diffusion Model (Sherry, Billig, & Giiibson, 2000)
  • Web 2.0 and the Novice Faculty Member
    • “ Context-free features”
    • Rules
    • Self-monitoring
    • Feedback and scaffolding
    • Discrete and non-ambiguous examples
    • Increasing opportunities for practice
  • WEB 2.0 CLASSIFICATIONS Communicative To share ideas, information, and creations • Blogs • Audioblogs • Videoblogs • IM-type tools • Podcasts • Webcams Collaborative To work with others for a specific purpose in a shared work area • Editing/writing tools • Virtual communities of practice • Wikis Documentative To collect and/or present evidence of experiences, thinking over time, productions, etc. • Blogs • Videoblogs • E-portfolios Generative To create something new that can be seen and/or used by others • Mashups • VCOPs • Virtual Learning Worlds Interactive To exchange information, ideas, resources, materials • Learning objectives • Social bookmarking • Virtual communities of practice • Virtual Learning Worlds
    • Source: http://c4lpt.co.uk/Directory/
  • A Network of Support
          • Tools not necessarily developed for an educational audience
          • No obligation to users
          • Ever-changing
          • Require separate logins/accounts/fragmentation
          • No centralized institutional support (usually)
          • Reliance on internet connection (high speed)
          • Lack of security
          • Learning curve
          • Variety of use and selection of tools could overwhelm students; lack of a common experience across courses
          • Intellectual property/copyright issues
  • Instructional Technology Challenges
    • The technology-adoption cycle
    • Lack of integrated technology tools
    • Learners’ changing expectations
    • Institutional changes to technology commitments
  • Activity: Data, Data, Data
    • Part I
    • Given examples of students and faculty members, how can you best support their utilization and integration of Web 2.0 technologies?
    • Part II
    • Given your responses, what kinds of services are needed
    • At institutional level?
    • At departmental level?