Objectives and Themes: - Chinese/US “battle of influence” in the region. - Importance of ASEAN-US relations - Abusive Military Regimes - Terrorism - Democracy
Engagement questions... We’ll discuss them at the end. 1. Should the US continue doing what it is doing in Indonesia? 2. What more can the US for Burma/Myanmar? 3. What can the US do to better relations with the ASEAN? 4. Should the US counteract increasing Chinese influence? If so, how?
ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Formed in 1967 - Many Countries independent after WWII - Main purpose to “Nation Build”
CHINA, US, and SOUTHEAST ASIA: BATTLE FOR SOUTH EAST ASIA - Lack of US initiative - Before(90's), South Asian countries did not like China Reasons: - Support of communist insurgency - Conflicting claims over south China sea
Terrorism Countries heavily affected: Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore Reasons: - Invasion of Iraq - Israeli-Palestinian Conflict - A large number of active Al Qaeda cells in the region Goal: - Terrorist Groups “seek to create independent Islamic states in majority-Muslim areas” General US response: - Deployment of troops to Philippines - Bilateral rather than multilateral - Countries wary to work too closely with the US
Indonesia - Independence after WWII - Tried Democracy for about 15 years didn't work. - Sukarno became “military dictator” in 1965 -Dictatorship from 1965 to 1998 - 1998 to present: a new and struggling democracy
Indonesia: Terrorism - High Muslim Population - Weak Central Government - Bali Attack – Triggered greater cooperation with US US Response: <ul><li>-Funding education to </li></ul><ul><li>stop radical boarding </li></ul><ul><li>schools </li></ul><ul><li>-Training police, </li></ul><ul><li>counter terrorist units, </li></ul><ul><li>etc... </li></ul>
Indonesia: Democracy - Considered “moderate Muslim democracy” - Conservative Islam is gaining ground by democratic means - An experiment in Muslim democracy Islam and Democracy
Indonesia: Relations with China/US With China: -Past Ideological differences (Communism) - Overall improvement post 9/11 With US - Investment in Indonesia's new Democracy - Energy! - Combating Terrorism
Abusive Military Regime? - Democracy 1948-1962 - Military Regime 1962-present - Military Forcefully suppressed pro-democracy protesters in 2007 (Biggest protest in the world since 1988) -Junta Forced (and/or payed) civilians to have a “ pro government” march - The ILO wants “ to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity” (check)
US foreign Policy - Sanctions from all over the world, heaviest from the United States - NO EFFECT Why: 1: Uneven Sanctions around the world 2: US Big Business in Burma 3: Successful exportation of their natural resources to other countries 4: Narcotics ( The Military Junta make big $$$ from this)
Okay, US Policies aren't working, what about the ASEAN? - Burma is causing a “disruption” between US/EU and ASEAN relations - Given a choice of losing chairmanship in ASEAN or instituting political reforms... Burma choose chairmenship -According to the ASEAN, they have limits, and will not impose any economic sanctions.
The China Factor - Military Aid - Economic Aid - Foreign Investment - Natural Resources
<ul><li>Discussion Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Should the US continue doing </li></ul><ul><li>what it is doing in Indonesia? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What more can the US for </li></ul><ul><li>Burma/Myanmar? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What can the US do to better </li></ul><ul><li>relations with the ASEAN? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the US counteract increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese influence? If so, how? </li></ul>