Class+12 (1).Ppt
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Class+12 (1).Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Wednesday, November 18
    Orthoses : passive, powered
    Hand movers
    Ankle rehabilitators
    Walking Lab
  • 2.
  • 3. AFO adjustable for PF correction
  • 4. Knee stability in an AFO
    Standard Metal
    AFO: 375 in. lbs.
    60% reduction
    In Quad torque
  • 5. Types of ankle bracing
  • 6. More types
  • 7. Powered Gait Orthoses
    Hydraulic Actuation (Seireg et al 1981)
    Five DOFs (2 at hip, 1 at knee, 2 at ankle)
    Good and simple design and analysis
    Bulky and unusable because of the current state of technology
    linear DC motor (Ruthenberg et al 1997)
    4 bar linkage and CAM system
    One DOF run by a Battery pack and control system
    Mechanized hip and knee with cam-modulated linkage for knee function
    Peak power usage ~ human walking
    May be a practical means for paraplegic gait?
  • 8. Powered ankle
  • 9. Functional Electrical Stimulation
    Can re-animate paralyzed muscles
    External or internal electrodes
    User triggered with switches. How else?
    Most are open loop, but reflexes not necessary for rhythmic motions.
    Problem because cutaneous nerves are stimulated first. Also larger motoneurons have lower threshold.
  • 10. Functional Arm Orthoses
    See also pp. 319 yellow
  • 11. FES
  • 12. Correcting muscle Atrophy
    Atrophy is the loss of muscle mass
    Present methods for preventing atrophy
    Implantable devices
    Continuation of Class 5 on muscles
  • 13. Elasticity
    (All or none)
    Time scale
  • 14. Muscle adaptation
    Two types : fast and slow
    or twitch and tonic
    white and red
    Fibers extend full length of
  • 15. Bion (Loeb et al.)
    BIONs are individually addressable, single channel stimulators that can be injected in or near muscles and nerves to treat paralysis, spasticity and other neurological dysfunctions. BIONs receive power and digital commands from an externally worn RF transmitter coil and generate precisely timed, current-regulated electrical stimulus pulses.
  • 16. System for functional electrical stimulation
    High surface area
    Prototypes of Bion2 have sensing capability for acceleration,
    & proximity.
    Galvani discovery of electricity
  • 17. The BION™
    A system using BIONs consists of a personal computer, a transduction coil, and the associated implantable BIONs
    A computer can control up to 256 BIONs at a time
    What are present uses for the BION?
    560 KHz carrier, need 20 Hz stim
    E Storage in body’s capacitance
  • 18. Flow Charts of BION Operation
    Implantable Device
  • 19. Comparison of Std. FES and the BION™ System
    • Both use magnetic fields to activate the implants
    • 20. Both are used to stimulate muscle contraction
    Implantable FES
    • Not battery powered
    • 21. External computer controls BION™ activation
    Battery Powered
    Switch to turn power on or off
  • 22. Idea for Bion in Preventing Atrophy
    Currently bions are controlled by an outside source, the personal trainer
    Goal would be to have the body control the computer that controls the bions.
    The trick would be creating a component that would be able to sense/detect an action potential along the severed nerve and use that signal to activate the bions.
  • 23. Some Applications
    Shoulder Subluxation
  • 24. Hand assist devices
  • 25. Without a glove
    May be difficult for a paralytic hand to don.
  • 26.
  • 27. Ankle Exercisor
    Drop foot is due to central paralysis; injury, I.e. PTT; osteoarthritis; Charcot foot.
  • 28. Range of Motion Ankle Rehabilitator
    An inverted joystick interface to computer.
  • 29. Rehabilitation Engineering
  • 30. Linking virtual to real world