Research

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  • Introductions Fill out name tag and bring every night for activities. Give your name, major and what you would like to learn in Psychology My History Devereux-ED kids in residential treatment facility, 6 years Crisis Stabilization Unit- Seriously mentally ill clients in unit/group home and on the Mobile Team. 1 year Teen Lifeline-7 years School Counselor-8 years Class structure: lecture. Participation, break, movie, home Go over Syllabus Remember to sign in and out each night for the extra credit. Read policy on late testing, late work and blackboard Discovering Psych Video : 2 Understanding Research Bring Card board, thick markers, Print out Attendance Copy Syllabus Psych Careers BlackBoard Log in instructions
  • Research

    1. 1. Welcome to Psych 101
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Psychology is : </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly the study of normal functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between mind and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Control and modification of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking about own and others’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering differences </li></ul>
    3. 3. Definition of Psychology <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mind… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small sub-topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(not in def. But oh so important….) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled observation is important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mind refers to the subjective experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior to the actions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What fields are in Psychology? <ul><li>Clinical Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Psychology </li></ul>
    5. 5. Psychological Research <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by Detecting Regularities and Consistencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate an Operational Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific predictions (If-then statements) about phenomena </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Study and Observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to ensure prediction correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate A Theory to Explain Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal statements that explain how and why events are related </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Different Types of Studies <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clips aturalistic obs.avi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Survey, Tests or Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ClipsTesting and data calculations.wmv Experiments </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Cross Sectional VS. Longitudinal Design
    8. 8. Experimental Research <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><li>(Activity) </li></ul><ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul>
    9. 9. Validity <ul><li>Does a test measure what we want it to measure? </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Validity -The extent to which an experiment has controlled for confounding variables; internally valid experiment allow for the determination of causality. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Reliability <ul><li>Is the test consistent across trials? </li></ul><ul><li>If yes then reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be reliable without being valid. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Statistics <ul><li>Types of Central Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ClipsCentral Tendency.avi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean - Average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode - Most Frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Occurring Score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median - Middle Point of scores </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mean <ul><li>Survey of Hand Washing in Daycare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 1 Situation 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack 4 Jack 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sally 9 Sally 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kim 4 Kim 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jessica 5 Jessica 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom 8 Tom (OCD) 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total 30/5 = 6 Total 51/5 = 10.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add Numbers and Divide by total </li></ul><ul><li>No one washed 6 times -- situation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Can be skewed by high/low # -- situation 2 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Mode <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jack 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sally 9 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kim 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jessica 5 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tom 8 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Frequently occurring score = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Represents real scores, no unmeaning numbers </li></ul>
    14. 14. Median <ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jack 4 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sally 9 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kim 4 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jessica 5 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tom 8 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Median = 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle point of scores </li></ul><ul><li>Even scores-take the average of the two middle scores </li></ul>
    15. 15. Data on Graph
    16. 16. Correlational Research <ul><li>A statistic that indicates whether 2 variables vary together in a systematic way. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation coefficients vary from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not determine causality. 3 rd variable factors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Correlations </li></ul>
    17. 17. Positive Correlations
    18. 18. Zero Correlation
    19. 19. Negative Correlation
    20. 20. Good practices in Experimental Research <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul>

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