Biological Processes 2009
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  • Biological Bases of Behavior Discovering Psych Video: 3 The Behaving Brain -neurotransmitters The Responsive Brain –second night if necessary You the Owners Manual –video Bring: Buzzer, stop watch, pens and cardboard, newspaper, possible stress balls, labels, tape Copy: Worksheet “ Disorders associated with having too much or too little neurotransmitter” + Power Point, Glossary and Chapter study guide

Biological Processes 2009 Biological Processes 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4
    • Brain and Behavior
  • Organization of the Nervous System
    • The Central Nervous System (CNS)
      • Composed of the brain and spinal cord
        • Spinal Cord
          • Sensory neurons
          • Motor neurons
          • Interneurons
          • Reflexes
    • Spinal Reflex
    • Reflexes enable us to remove ourselves immediately from danger by avoiding the time it would take for a message to go to and from the brain. In this example, the interneuron in the spinal column intercepts the "extreme heat” message from the sensory neuron and directs the motor neurons to contract the hand muscles, thereby pulling the hand away from the burner.
    • Divisions of The Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • is protected by bone, comprises the brain and spinal cord.
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS),
    • not protected by bone, comprises the nerves of the autonomic and somatic systems.
    • The autonomic system transmits messages btwn the brain and internal organs.
    • The somatic system transmits messages btwn the brain, sensory and motor nerves, which are linked to the skeletal muscles.
  • The Autonomic Nervous System Note how the two parts of the autonomic system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, complement one another as they regulate the functions of the organs.
    • Neuron Anatomy:
    • Messenger system that sends and receives information throughout the body.
    • Each neuron has the same structure: dendrites, soma, axon, and terminal buttons.
    • http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf
    • Neurons and The Synapse
    • Neurons relay electrochemical messages by releasing neurotransmitters that cross the synapse to the dendrites of the receiving neurons.
    • Neural Transmission.
    • A neural impulse flows from the axon of a neuron to the axon's terminal buttons, instigating the release of neurotransmitter substances which bind to specific receptor sites that provide a fit to them.
    • The relationship is like that of a key opening only a special kind of lock.
  • Nervous System Cells Functions
    • The Action Potential Neuron communication
        • Electrical signal that travels along an axon of a neuron
        • Threshold of excitation
    • Neural Transmission
        • Neurotransmitter
        • Excitatory and inhibitory messages
        • Reuptake
      • Simulation
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
      • Excites Receptors
        • Excites the peripheral nervous system to contract skeletal muscles = movement
      • Memory, Attention, Arousal
        • Action may be blocked in Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Too Little:
      • Example-Botulism
        • Bacteria in food, prevents release of Ach-signal carrier to muscles =paralysis and death.
      • Too Much:
      • Example-Black Widow Spider Poison
        • Ach storm=spasms and tremors.
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Dopamine
    • Movement
    • Attention
    • Learning
    • Pleasure Pathways and responses.
      • Cocaine
          • Prevents reabsorption--dopamine,
          • Dopamine stays in the synapse longer = heightened arousal.
    • Parkinson’s Disease
      • Deficit in Dopamine (Movement)
    • Schizophrenia
      • Excess of Dopamine (Attention, Learning, Responses)
      • Antipsychotic meds
        • Prevent dopamine from binding to receptor sites;
          • reducing stimulation and decreasing hallucinations.
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Serotonin Generally inhibitory
      • Arousal
      • Regulates Sleep/Waking states
      • Regulation of mood (major influence in depression)
      • Appetite
      • Sensitivity to pain
      • Inhibit dreaming
      • Linked to depression
      • Produce Anxiety (Influences anxiety disorders)
  • Action Potential with Neurotransmitters at the Synapse Simulation
    • Presynaptic Synapse Postsynaptic
    • Terminal Button Dendrite
    Neurotransmitter Drug
  • Download this corrected figure from the Instructor Book Companion Web Site and insert here. Figure 3.11 The Structures/Functions of the Brain
  • The Structures/Functions of the Brain
    • The Hindbrain
      • Main function: “Life support”
        • Examples: Breathing, heart rate
      • Medulla Oblongata
      • Pons
      • Cerebellum
    • The Midbrain
      • Main function: “Relay stations”
        • Coordinates sensory information
      • Reticular Activating System (RAS)
    • Reticular Activating System
    • The reticular activating system is important in regulating sleep and waking, and arousal in general.
  • The Structures/Functions of the Brain
    • The Forebrain
      • The Limbic System
          • Hippocampus
          • Amygdala
      • The Thalamus
          • basal ganglia
      • The Hypothalamus
        • Regulation of body temp, eating, drinking and sexual behavior
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
    • The cortex is divided into the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
    • The lobes have specific functions but also interact to perform complex processes.
    The Structures/Functions of the Brain
  • The Four Lobes of the Brain
      • The Frontal lobe
        • Decision making, planning, personality
      • http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/psych/psychsci2/content/video_exercises/assets/ch04_02.asp Adobe Flash
      • Primary motor cortex
      • The Parietal lobe
        • primary somatosensory cortex
      • The Temporal lobe
        • Broca’s Area
        • Wernicke’s Area
      • The Occipital lobe
        • optic chiasma
  • Motor Cortex and Somatic
      • The Cerebral Cortex and Hemispheres
        • Cerebrum
        • Cerebral cortex
        • Cerebral hemispheres
        • Corpus callosum
      • The Hemispheres of the Brain
      • Split-Brain Studies
    The Structures/Functions of the Brain
  • Split Brain Mechanics
  • Split Brain Studies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc
  • Prefrontal Cortex