Uhs 2062 Organizational Development
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Uhs 2062 Organizational Development



These slides are for guides only, based on various authors such as Aamodt and Riggio .

These slides are for guides only, based on various authors such as Aamodt and Riggio .



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Uhs 2062 Organizational Development Uhs 2062 Organizational Development Presentation Transcript

  • Organizational Development
    Prepared for UHS 2062 lectures at UTM Skudai, Johore, October 2009
  • Introduction
    Organizational development is the process of improving organizational performance by making organizational-wide changes.
  • Organizational structure
    Organizational structure refers to the arrangement of positions in an organization and the authority and responsibility relationships among them (as every organization is made up of persons holding particular positions or playing certain roles).
  • An example of a structure
  • Dimensions of organizational structure
    Traditional vs nontraditional organizational structure
    Functional vs divisional structure
    Centralized vs decentralized structure
  • Traditional vs Nontraditional
    Traditional organization structure(TOS) has formally defined roles for their members, very rule driven and stable & resistance to change.
    Jobs and lines of status /authority tend to be clearly defined in traditional structures (kept within organizational guidelines and standards).
  • Traditional vs Nontraditional
    Nontraditional organizational structures (NOS), are characterized by less formalized work roles and procedures.
    Flexible and adaptable, without rigid hierarchical characteristics.
    NOS generally have fewer employees than the TOS.
    NOS and TOS may occur in the same organization, but different departments.
  • Traditional vs Nontraditional
    NOS are often organized around a particular project or product line and are responsible for all aspects of the job.
    Examples of NOS:
    Film crews
    Financial institutions etc
  • Characteristics of NOS
    High flexibility and adaptability
    Collaboration among workers
    Less emphasis on organizational status
    Group decision making
  • Change of command
    The chain of command is the number of authority levels in a particular organization.
    The chain of command follows the line of authority and status vertically through the organization.
  • Span of control
    The span of control is the number of worker who must report to a single supervisor.
    An organization with a wide span of control has many workers reporting to each supervisor.
    An organization with a narrow span of control has workers reporting to each supervisor.
  • Span of control
    Based on the dimension of span of control, an organization can be described as either “tall” or “flat”.
    A “tall” organizational structure has a long chain of command and a narrow span of control
    A “flat ” organizational structure has a short chain of command and a wide span of control.
  • Organizational Change
    First step towards organizational change is called the sacred cow hunt (Kriegel & Bradnt, 1996) :
    The paper cow
    The meeting cow
    The speed cow
  • Employees acceptance of change
    Carnall (1990, in Aamodt, 2007) suggests that employees typically go through five stages of organizational change: denial, defense, discarding, adaptation and internalization.
  • Stage 1: Denial
    Denies that any changes will take place
    Try to convince that old ways is working
    Find reasons why the proposed change will never work
  • Stage 2 : Defense
    When employees begin to believe that change will actually occur, they become defensive and try to justify their positions and ways of doing things.
  • Stage 3 : Discarding
    At some point employees began to realize that not only that the organization is going to change , but the employees are going to have to change as well .
    Change is inevitable; thus old ways have to be discarded and start accepting the change as the new reality.
  • Stage 4 : Adaptation
    Employees test the new system, learn how it functions, began to make adjustments in the way they perform.
    Tremendous energy is spent and employees can often become frustrated and angry.
  • Stage 5 : Internalization
    Employees become immersed in the new culture, become comfortable with the new system and accepted their new coworkers and the new work environment.
  • Important factors
    The extent to which the employees readily accept and handle the change is dependent on :
    The reason behind the change
    The person making the change
    The personality being changed
  • Organizational culture
    Also often referred to as corporate culture, or corporate climate.
    Organizational culture comprises of the shared values, beliefs and the traditions that exist among the individuals in the organization.
    It is the culture that establish the workplace norms of appropriate behaviors etc
  • Organizational Change Techniques
    Management by Objectives
    Survey Feedback
    Team building
  • Organizational Theories
    Distinguish the characteristics of org.
    The structure of org.
    The interrelationships of people in org.
    The interactions between various elements in an org. such as people and technology
    See Spector
  • What is culture?
    Culture is the comprehensive term that includes the various understandings, traditions and guidance which we all belong (Gestwicki, 2007)
    “Culture forms the prism which members of a group see the world and create shared meaning” ( Bowman and Burgess, 1993, in Gestwicki, 2007)
  • Changing culture
    Assessing the new culture:
    Needs assessment
    Determining executive direction
    Implementing consideration
    Evaluation of the new culture
  • Other steps…
    Creating dissatisfaction with the existing culture
    Maintaining the new culture
    Selection of employees
  • Empowerment
  • What does empowerment mean?
    More accurate to describe empowerment as a process as an end state ( Gargiulo and Kilgo, 2005)
  • Making decisions to empower
    Factors in making decision to empower:
    Importance of decision quality
    Leader knowledge of the problem area
    Structure of the problem
    Importance of decision acceptance
    Probability of decision acceptance
    Subordinate trust and motivation
    Probability of subordinate conflict
  • The Different Meanings of Empowerment
    When employer empowers employees, what they mean is giving more say in the day-to-day activities.
    Empowerment may mean differently to employer and to employees.
  • Levels of employee input
    Ownership of own product
    Shared /participative /team
  • Consequences of empowerment
  • References
    Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson
    Riggio, R. E. (1996). Introduction to Industrial/ Organizational Psychology (2nd. Ed). New York: Harper Collins
    Gargiulo, R & Kilgo, J ( 2005). Young children with special needs ( 2nd ed.). New York: Thomson