Group behavior, teams and conflicts<br />UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai.<br />Prepared by SitiRokiahSiwok, March  2010<br...
Introduction<br />Employee seldom work in isolation  ( Mullins, 2006).<br />Groups are characteristics of all social situa...
Definition of a group<br />Any  no. of people interacting with one another, psychologically aware of one another and perce...
Definition of a group<br />Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in Aamodt, 2007): <br />Members see themselves as a uni...
Reasons for joining a group<br />Assignment<br />Physical proximity <br />Affiliation<br />Identification<br />Emotional s...
Groups or teams?<br />Not all groups are teams<br />“ Teams occurs when a number of people have a common goal and recogniz...
Group or team?<br />(Belbin, 2000 in Mullins 2006) <br />
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group cohesiveness<br />Group homogeneity<br />Stability of membership<br />Isola...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group  cohesiveness<br />It is the extent to which group members like and trust e...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Isolation<br />Group that is isolated  tends to be highly cohesive<br />External ...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group status<br />The higher the group status, the greater is the cohesiveness; t...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Communication network<br />Communication network affects groups’ performance<br /...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group role<br />The extent to which the members of a group assume their roles aff...
Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Presence of others<br />Social facilitation provides the positive effects of the ...
Group conflicts<br />Working together in a group or teams  always presents the potential for  the  occurrence of conflicts...
Dysfunctional and functional  conflicts<br />Most conflicts  results in lower team performance, and lower  members satisfa...
Types of conflicts<br />Interpersonal  conflict<br />Individual – group conflict<br />Group –group conflict<br />
What are the causes of conflicts?<br />
Causes of conflicts<br />Competition of resources<br />Task independence<br />Jurisdictional ambiguity<br />Communication ...
Conflicting styles<br />Avoiding style<br />Accommodating style <br />Forcing style<br />Collaborating style<br />Compromi...
Determining conflict style<br />Organization  Conflict Inventory II (Rahim and Magner, 1995) <br />Cohen  Conflict Respons...
Resolving conflict<br />Prevention /prior to conflict occurrence<br />When conflict first occurs<br />Third -party interve...
Prior to conflict occurring <br />An organisation should have a formal policy on how conflict to be handled, which states ...
When conflict FIRST occurs<br />The two parties  should be encouraged  to use conflict resolution skills  which they had l...
When conflict FIRST occurs<br />Key to resolving conflict is to  reduce tension  and increase trust between the 2 parties;...
Third party intervention<br />If  conflict cannot be resolved, good to seek help-third party intervention, through mediati...
Summary <br />Groups consists of  multiple members who perceive themselves as  a unit a and sharer  common goal  or goals<...
Summary <br />Teams have  four developmental stages; namely forming, storming, norming and performing.<br />The team appro...
Reference:<br />Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson.<br /...
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Uhs 2062 Group Behaviours, Teams And Conflicts

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Uhs 2062 Group Behaviours, Teams And Conflicts

  1. 1. Group behavior, teams and conflicts<br />UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai.<br />Prepared by SitiRokiahSiwok, March 2010<br />srsiwok@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Employee seldom work in isolation ( Mullins, 2006).<br />Groups are characteristics of all social situations <br /> ( Mullins, 2006). <br />Most employee behaviour takes place in groups or teams; thus important to understand group dynamics (Aamodt, 2007) <br />People in groups influence each other in various ways.<br />Groups may develop hierarchies and leaders .<br />Style of leadership affect groups.<br />
  3. 3. Definition of a group<br />Any no. of people interacting with one another, psychologically aware of one another and perceived themselves to be in a group ( Schein, 1988 in Mullins 2006)<br />A definable membership, group consciousness, shared purpose, interdependence, interaction and ability to act in a unitary manner ( Adair, 1986 in Mullins 2006)<br />
  4. 4. Definition of a group<br />Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in Aamodt, 2007): <br />Members see themselves as a unit<br />Group must provide rewards to members<br />Members of the group share a common goal<br />Corresponding effects(whatever happens to a member affects every other member). <br />
  5. 5. Reasons for joining a group<br />Assignment<br />Physical proximity <br />Affiliation<br />Identification<br />Emotional support<br />Assistance or help<br />Common interest<br />Common goals<br />
  6. 6. Groups or teams?<br />Not all groups are teams<br />“ Teams occurs when a number of people have a common goal and recognize that their personal success is dependent on the success of others. They are all interdependent…” ( Crainer, 1998, in Mullins 2006) <br />
  7. 7. Group or team?<br />(Belbin, 2000 in Mullins 2006) <br />
  8. 8. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group cohesiveness<br />Group homogeneity<br />Stability of membership<br />Isolation<br />External pressure<br />Group size<br />Group status<br />Group ability and confidence<br />Personality of group members<br />Communication network<br />Group role<br />Presence of others<br />Individual dominance<br />
  9. 9. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group cohesiveness<br />It is the extent to which group members like and trust each other, committed to accomplish a team goal and share a feeling of group pride ( Beale, Cohen, Burke & McLendon, 2003 in Aamodt, 2007)<br />Group homogeneity<br />It is the extent to which members are similar<br />Homogeneous or heterogeneous will lead to the best group performance? <br />Stability of membership<br />The greater the stability, the greater the cohesiveness<br />Thus members who remain for long periods of time are more cohesive and perform better than groups that have high turnover (Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007)<br />
  10. 10. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Isolation<br />Group that is isolated tends to be highly cohesive<br />External pressure<br />Groups that are pressured by external forces tend to be highly cohesive; which can be explained by the phenomena psychological reactance ( Brehm, 1966 in Aamodt, 2007)<br />Group size <br />Groups are most cohesive and perform best when the size is small.<br />However, not all small group are always the best; also depends on the tasks.<br />
  11. 11. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group status<br />The higher the group status, the greater is the cohesiveness; thus a group can be made more cohesive by increasing its status, at least in the eyes of the members. <br />Group ability and confidence<br />Groups with high-ability members outperform groups with low-ability members<br />Groups whose members believe that their team can be successful perform better than those whose members are not confident.<br />Personality of group members<br />Groups with members who score high in openness and emotional stability will perform better that groups whose members do not have these characteristics ( Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007)<br />
  12. 12. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Communication network<br />Communication network affects groups’ performance<br />The best network depends on the situation and the goals of the group.<br />A good leader must choose the best communication network which facilitates the achievement of the group’s goals. <br />
  13. 13. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Group role<br />The extent to which the members of a group assume their roles affect group performance<br />Members roles must fall into one of these categories: <br />(1) task-orientated roles, such as offering new ideas and coordinating new activities<br />(2) social-oriented roles, such as encouraging cohesiveness and participation <br />(3) individual role<br />
  14. 14. Factors affecting Group Performance<br />Presence of others<br />Social facilitation provides the positive effects of the presence of others, but for easy tasks or well learned tasks.<br />Individual dominance<br />If the leader has an accurate solution to a problem in the group, then the group performs at high level.<br />
  15. 15. Group conflicts<br />Working together in a group or teams always presents the potential for the occurrence of conflicts. <br />Conflict is the psychological and behavioral reaction to a perception that another person is keeping you from reaching a goal, taking away your right to act in a particular way or violating the expectancies of a relationship. <br />Key component to conflict is perception.<br />The level of conflict is a function of the importance of the goal, behavior or relationship. <br />
  16. 16. Dysfunctional and functional conflicts<br />Most conflicts results in lower team performance, and lower members satisfaction, <br />Most conflicts are dysfunctional , as the conflicts prevents people from working together, lessens productivity and increases turnover. <br />Moderate degree of conflict , called functional conflicts can result in better performance- stimulate new ideas, increase friendly competition and increase team effectiveness. <br />Moderate conflicts reduce the risks of larger conflicts.<br />
  17. 17. Types of conflicts<br />Interpersonal conflict<br />Individual – group conflict<br />Group –group conflict<br />
  18. 18. What are the causes of conflicts?<br />
  19. 19. Causes of conflicts<br />Competition of resources<br />Task independence<br />Jurisdictional ambiguity<br />Communication challenges<br />Beliefs<br />Personality<br />( Aamodt, 2007)<br />
  20. 20. Conflicting styles<br />Avoiding style<br />Accommodating style <br />Forcing style<br />Collaborating style<br />Compromising style<br />
  21. 21. Determining conflict style<br />Organization Conflict Inventory II (Rahim and Magner, 1995) <br />Cohen Conflict Response Inventory (Cohen, 1997)<br />
  22. 22. Resolving conflict<br />Prevention /prior to conflict occurrence<br />When conflict first occurs<br />Third -party intervention<br />
  23. 23. Prior to conflict occurring <br />An organisation should have a formal policy on how conflict to be handled, which states that :<br />Employees should first try to resolve their own conflicts <br />If the above is not successful, employees can utilise a third party intervention <br />Employees should receive training on the causes of conflict, ways to provent conflict and strategies to resolve it. <br />
  24. 24. When conflict FIRST occurs<br />The two parties should be encouraged to use conflict resolution skills which they had learned. These skills include:<br /> Expressing a desire for cooperation<br />Offering compliments<br />Avoiding negative interaction<br />Emphasizing mutual similarities<br />Highlighting common goals<br />
  25. 25. When conflict FIRST occurs<br />Key to resolving conflict is to reduce tension and increase trust between the 2 parties; which can be accomplished by :<br />Stating an intention to reduce tension <br />Publicly announcing steps to be taken to reduce tension. <br />Inviting the other side to take action in to reduce tension. <br />Making sure all initiative are unambiguous. <br />
  26. 26. Third party intervention<br />If conflict cannot be resolved, good to seek help-third party intervention, through mediation or arbitration. <br />
  27. 27. Summary <br />Groups consists of multiple members who perceive themselves as a unit a and sharer common goal or goals<br />People joining groups due to a need for affiliation, a need for identification with success, a need for emotional support, a need for assistance, common goals , physical proximity and assignment.<br />Many factors contribute to a group success. <br />
  28. 28. Summary <br />Teams have four developmental stages; namely forming, storming, norming and performing.<br />The team approach is not always the best.<br />Conflict has many causes, such as competition of resources etc.<br />People react to conflict differently <br />Conflict is part of life in an organization and can be managed wisely and successfully. <br />
  29. 29. Reference:<br />Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson.<br />Mullins, L.J. ( 2006). Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. England: Prentice Hall<br />
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