UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai.
Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok, Sept 2009
Definition of a group
Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in
Members see themselves as a unit
Group must provide rewards to members
Members of the group share a common goal
Corresponding effects(whatever happens to a
member affects every other member).
Reasons for joining a group
Assistance or help
Working together in a group or teams always presents
the potential for the occurrence of conflicts.
Conflict is the psychological and behavioural reaction
to a perception that another person is keeping you
from reaching a goal, taking away your right to act in
a particular way or violating the expectancies of a
Key component to conflict is perception.
The level of conflict is a function of the importance of
the goal, behaviour or relationship.
Dysfunctional and functional
Most conflicts results in lower team performance, and
lower members satisfaction,
Most conflicts are dysfunctional , as the conflicts
prevents people from working together, lessens
productivity and increases turnover.
Moderate degree of conflict , called functional
conflicts can result in better performance- stimulate
new ideas, increase friendly competition and increase
Moderate conflicts reduce the risks of larger conflicts.
Types of conflicts
Individual – group conflict
Group –group conflict
Causes of conflicts
Competition of resources
Determining conflict style
Organization Conflict Inventory II (Rahim
and Magner, 1995)
Cohen Conflict Response Inventory
Prevention /prior to conflict occurrence
When conflict first occurs
Third -party intervention
Prior to conflict occurring
An organisation should have a formal policy on how
conflict to be handled, which states that :
Employees should first try to resolve their own conflicts
If the above is not successful, employees can utilise a
third party intervention
Employees should receive training on the causes of
conflict, ways to provent conflict and strategies to
When conflict FIRST occurs
The two parties should be encouraged to use conflict
resolution skills which they had learned. These skills
Expressing a desire for cooperation
Avoiding negative interaction
Emphasizing mutual similarities
Highlighting common goals
When conflict FIRST occurs
Key to resolving conflict is to reduce tension and
increase trust between the 2 parties; which can be
accomplished by :
Stating an intention to reduce tension
Publicly announcing steps to be taken to reduce
Inviting the other side to take action in to reduce
Making sure all initiative are unambiguous.
Third party intervention
If conflict cannot be resolved, good to seek
help-third party intervention, through
mediation or arbitration.
Groups consists of multiple members who
perceive themselves as a unit a and sharer
common goal or goals
People joining groups due to a need for affiliation,
a need for identification with success, a need for
emotional support, a need for assistance, common
goals , physical proximity and assignment.
Many factors contribute to a group success.
Teams have four developmental stages; namely
forming, storming, norming and performing.
The team approach is not always the best.
Conflict has many causes, such as competition of
People react to conflict differently
Conflict is part of life in an organization and can
be managed wisely and successfully.