Uhs 2062 Group Behaviours, Teams And Conflicts


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Slides prepared for my UHS 2062 UTM (Skudai, Malaysia ) students based on the references given. These are just guides to initiate further readings.

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Uhs 2062 Group Behaviours, Teams And Conflicts

  1. 1. UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai. Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok, Sept 2009 srsiwok@gmail.com
  2. 2. Definition of a group  Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in Aamodt, 2007):  Members see themselves as a unit  Group must provide rewards to members  Members of the group share a common goal  Corresponding effects(whatever happens to a member affects every other member).
  3. 3. Reasons for joining a group  Assignment  Physical proximity  Affiliation  Identification  Emotional support  Assistance or help  Common interest  Common goals
  4. 4. Group conflicts  Working together in a group or teams always presents the potential for the occurrence of conflicts.  Conflict is the psychological and behavioural reaction to a perception that another person is keeping you from reaching a goal, taking away your right to act in a particular way or violating the expectancies of a relationship.  Key component to conflict is perception.  The level of conflict is a function of the importance of the goal, behaviour or relationship.
  5. 5. Dysfunctional and functional conflicts  Most conflicts results in lower team performance, and lower members satisfaction,  Most conflicts are dysfunctional , as the conflicts prevents people from working together, lessens productivity and increases turnover.  Moderate degree of conflict , called functional conflicts can result in better performance- stimulate new ideas, increase friendly competition and increase team effectiveness.  Moderate conflicts reduce the risks of larger conflicts.
  6. 6. Types of conflicts  Individual conflict  Individual – group conflict  Group –group conflict
  7. 7. Causes of conflicts Competition of resources Task independence Jurisdictional ambiguity Communication challenges Beliefs Personality
  8. 8. Conflicting styles  Avoiding style  Accommodating style  Forcing style  Collaborating style  Compromising style
  9. 9. Determining conflict style  Organization Conflict Inventory II (Rahim and Magner, 1995)  Cohen Conflict Response Inventory (Cohen, 1997)
  10. 10. Resolving conflict  Prevention /prior to conflict occurrence  When conflict first occurs  Third -party intervention
  11. 11. Prior to conflict occurring  An organisation should have a formal policy on how conflict to be handled, which states that :  Employees should first try to resolve their own conflicts  If the above is not successful, employees can utilise a third party intervention  Employees should receive training on the causes of conflict, ways to provent conflict and strategies to resolve it.
  12. 12. When conflict FIRST occurs  The two parties should be encouraged to use conflict resolution skills which they had learned. These skills include:  Expressing a desire for cooperation  Offering compliments  Avoiding negative interaction  Emphasizing mutual similarities  Highlighting common goals
  13. 13. When conflict FIRST occurs  Key to resolving conflict is to reduce tension and increase trust between the 2 parties; which can be accomplished by :  Stating an intention to reduce tension  Publicly announcing steps to be taken to reduce tension.  Inviting the other side to take action in to reduce tension.  Making sure all initiative are unambiguous.
  14. 14. Third party intervention  If conflict cannot be resolved, good to seek help-third party intervention, through mediation or arbitration.
  15. 15. Summary  Groups consists of multiple members who perceive themselves as a unit a and sharer common goal or goals  People joining groups due to a need for affiliation, a need for identification with success, a need for emotional support, a need for assistance, common goals , physical proximity and assignment.  Many factors contribute to a group success.
  16. 16. Summary  Teams have four developmental stages; namely forming, storming, norming and performing.  The team approach is not always the best.  Conflict has many causes, such as competition of resources etc.  People react to conflict differently  Conflict is part of life in an organization and can be managed wisely and successfully.
  17. 17. Reference:  Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson.